Polling Update: Americans Continue to Resist Negative Messages about Immigrants, but Partisan Differences Continue to Grow

This is the latest in a series of summaries of surveys of public opinion on immigration-related issues and policy proposals. For the most part, these surveys are conducted by mainstream media and polling organizations, though we also look at lesser-known polls, especially when focusing on particular states.

Since the last in this series, in the spring of 2019, the Trump administration has continued to portray immigrants as a threat, and it has continued to implement policies that have made it more difficult for international residents ­ to enter the U.S. — whether coming to immigrate, seek asylum, resettle as refugees, work temporarily, study or even to go sightseeing.

Press coverage of the administration’s immigration policies has been non-stop. Children were separated from their parents at the border. The “Dreamers” — immigrants brought to the U.S. as children — faced legal limbo. The administration’s efforts to end Temporary Protected Status for hundreds of thousands remained tied up in the courts. Asylum seekers were turned back at the border and told to wait in Mexico for a hearing. Refugee admissions were cut to record lows. Legal immigration was effectively scaled back through policy changes that slowed processing and increased denials. Immigration courts faced a record backlog of cases. The administration sparred with states and localities that were prioritizing community trust over immigration enforcement for their law enforcement agencies. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) increasingly arrested and deported immigrants who had lived in the U.S. for years without incident, and who had never been convicted of a crime. In the first half of 2020, as the coronavirus pandemic proliferated in the U.S., the administration halted nearly all immigration, refugee admissions, and access to asylum, ostensibly to stop the spread of the virus.

How did the public react to these events? Did the public become more hostile towards immigrants who were the target of hostile messaging from some politicians? Or was there an increase in public sympathy for a beleaguered immigrant population?

The reality, as usual, is complicated. The public has been supportive of temporary restrictions on immigration during the pandemic. Outside of the pandemic context, a majority of the public has remained favorable toward immigrants and immigration. However, the partisan divide in attitudes toward immigrants and immigration — illuminated in public opinion polling over the last several years — continues to widen.

General Views on Immigration, Immigrants and Diversity

In the time before the COVID-19 pandemic, back in the spring of 2019, months after images of Central American caravans played a prominent role in the 2018 midterm election campaign, we began to see immigration moving toward the top of the list of concerns of Americans. With tens of thousands of migrants continuing to seek asylum at the border, often in family groups, the continuing media spotlight on the migrant influx further elevated the salience of immigration issues with the public.

For example, in June of 2019, a Reuters/Ipsos poll was released that asked a large sample of U.S. adults — more than 4,400 — what they thought was “the most important problem” facing the U.S. today. In this poll, immigration was tied with healthcare (at 19%) as the most important of 11 issues listed. This represented a significant increase in ranking from previous surveys, which was also reflected in a chart accompanying the report of the survey results showing the relative rank of five issues (including immigration) over time.[i]

Gallup also found heightened concern about immigration. In fact, in a June 2019 poll, the percentage of Americans who said that immigration was the most important problem facing the country reached a record high in Gallup polling, at 23%. (One month later, in July 2019, it was even higher, at 27%.[ii]) However, the public’s rising concern about immigration did not necessarily mean it was turning against immigrants. When asked their views on whether immigration was a good thing or a bad thing for the country, 76% said it was a good thing. That was also a record high for Gallup. Two-thirds of those who identified immigration as the most important problem also said immigration was a good thing for the country. A majority of Democrats (87%) independents (78%) and Republicans (62%) held that view. In another first for Gallup polling on immigration, more Americans believed that immigrants “mostly help the economy by providing low-cost labor” (55%) than believed immigrants “mostly hurt the economy by driving down wages for many Americans” (37%). On this question, as with many questions on immigration in recent years, there was a significant gap between Republicans on the one hand (60% of whom believed immigrants mostly hurt the economy) and Democrats and independents on the other (72% and 58%, respectively, believing that immigrants mostly help). While the percentage of Americans who wanted to see a decrease in immigration ticked up (to 35%) compared to polls earlier in 2019 and in 2018, it was still well below historical levels. There were more Republicans who wanted to see a decrease in immigration (54%) than Democrats (13%).[iii]

In a July 2019 Morning Consult/Politico poll, respondents expressed positive views about legal immigrants, with 60% saying they believed immigrants “strengthen our country because of their hard work and talents,” while less than a quarter (24%) believed that legal immigrants “are a burden” because “they take our housing, health care and jobs.”[iv]

A Quinnipiac University poll released at the end of July 2019 asked respondents whether they believed immigration was a good thing for the country. As with other polls in this period, a strong majority overall (70%) believed immigration was good for the country. Again, Democrats and independents were much more likely to believe immigration was a good thing (87 and 75%, respectively) than were Republicans, only half of whom (49%) said they believed immigration was good for the country. (However, just 32% of Republican respondents said they believed immigration was a bad thing for the country.)[v]

In March 2020, the Public Religion Research Institute released analysis of a poll conducted in late summer of 2019 that focused on American attitudes towards immigrants and immigration. The analysis found that nearly half (49%) rated immigration as a critical issue facing the country. Only health care (65%) and terrorism (54%) ranked higher in this poll, with climate change (49%) tied with immigration as the third most cited issue. Republicans were more likely to cite immigration as a critical issue (60%) than Democrats (49%) and independents (42%). Among Republicans, 73% of those who trust Fox News above other news sources viewed immigration as a critical issue. The analysis noted that concerns about immigration increased with age, with Americans over the age of 65 being most concerned (58% naming immigration as critical). The analysis also noted that, generally, those with more negative views about immigration were more likely to cite immigration as a critical issue.[vi]

The same analysis found that, compared to 2016, Americans were more inclined to see immigration as strengthening America society. In 2016, just 44% believed that the growing number of newcomers from other countries strengthened American society, while in the latest survey, 59% thought that way. Those who saw the growing number of newcomers as a threat to American customs and values declined from 46% in 2016 to 39% in 2019. While Americans overall viewed immigrants as having a positive impact on society, more than two-thirds of Republicans (71%) saw immigrants as a threat. Only 35% of independents and 20% of Democrats said that immigrants threaten American customs and values. The PRRI survey asked a similar question, but putting the idea of immigrants as a threat in more harsh terms. Respondents were asked if they thought immigrants were “invading our country and replacing our cultural and ethnic background.” More than a third of all respondents (36%) held that view, with the highest percentage registered among Republicans who trusted Fox News more than other sources. Among Republicans overall, 63% held that view, more than twice the percentage of independents (31%). A significant percentage of Democrats (20%) also held that view. PRRI noted that respondents who believed that immigration is a critical issue were three times more likely to say that immigrants are invading the country than those who thought that immigration is not a critical issue. This suggests Americans who favor a harder line on immigration are more likely to prioritize the issue than those who are appalled by policies such as family separation.[vii]

A majority of Americans (60%) said that immigrants strengthen our country because of their hard work and talent, while only 38% said immigrants are a burden because they take jobs, housing and health care. However, PRRI noted there is a significant split on this attitude, and that split has grown in the past 10 years. More than twice as many Democrats (79%) as Republicans (31%) are likely to believe immigrants strengthen our country. In 2010, the margin between Democrats and Republicans was 55 to 35%.[viii]

Despite mixed views about immigration, Americans have positive attitudes towards immigrants when thinking about them more on an individual level. PRRI scored respondents on their opinions relating to four immigrant traits — whether or not immigrants are hardworking, have strong family values, “mostly keep to themselves” and “make an effort to learn English.” Based on the scores combining opinions about these traits, most Americans (89%) viewed immigrants favorably. The favorable view of immigrants was consistent across party lines and crossed other demographic characteristics as well. The one trait where there was substantial divergence was on the willingness of immigrants to learn English. Only 33% of Republicans thought immigrants make an effort to learn English, while 71% of Democrats thought so.[ix]

A CBS News poll released June 8, 2020, found significant partisan difference over the question of whether immigrants make American society better, worse, or have little effect in the long run. While a majority of respondents (55%) had a positive opinion about the role of immigrants, only a plurality of Republicans (34%) thought immigrants made America better, while majorities of Democrats (72%) and independents (55%) thought so. Twenty-eight% of Republicans said they thought immigrants made American society worse, while only 8% of Democrats thought so.[x]

In early June 2020, the Pew Research Center released the results of a couple of immigration-related questions on a larger public opinion poll. Respondents were asked whether or not they thought immigrants mostly fill jobs Americans don’t want. They were asked the same about legal immigrants. Overall, 77% of respondents said they thought undocumented immigrants mostly filled jobs that U.S. citizens do not want. While there were differences between Republicans and Democrats, strong majorities of both parties (66% and 87%, respectively) believed undocumented immigrants were taking jobs that were not wanted by U.S. citizens. There was little difference in opinion between Blacks/African Americans (71% of whom said they thought undocumented immigrants filled jobs citizens don’t want) and Whites (75%). When the same question was asked about legal immigrants, fewer respondents across the board said that they believed legal immigrants were mostly filling jobs U.S. citizens did not want. Seventy-two percent of Democrats and 54% of Republicans said they though legal immigrants were mostly filling jobs citizens didn’t want.[xi]

Also in June 2020, an article posted on the site of the Public Religion Research Institute reported on a survey conducted in May of “Generation Z” respondents age 18-24 regarding their attitudes on immigration (among other issues). The survey was conducted online and was not a random sample, but was constructed to be representative of this most racially and ethnically diverse generation of any in the U.S. This generation was more supportive of pro-immigration positions that Millennials and older adults. For example, two-thirds (66%) of Generation Z respondents said they thought immigrants strengthen the diversity of the U.S. (compared to 50% of Millennials) and 69% said that immigrants only take jobs Americans don’t want (compared to 50% of Millennials and 50% of older adults).[xii]

On July 1, 2020, Gallup reported on a poll conducted at the end of May into early June. This poll found that, for the first time since Gallup began asking the question in 1965, the percentage of Americans who said they wanted to see an increase in immigration (34%) was greater than the percentage who wanted immigration to the U.S. cut (28%). Thirty-six% said immigration should be kept at its present level. The rising preference for more immigration is being driven by Democrats (50% of whom want increased immigration) and independents (34%). Only 13% of Republicans said they wanted to see immigration increased — the same percentage as 10 years ago. (By contrast, 22% of Democrats wanted immigration increased in 2010.) In the same poll, respondents said they thought immigration was a good thing for the country today. Majorities of Republicans (62%), independents (78%) and Democrats (89%) said they thought immigration was a good thing.[xiii]

A poll from NPR/Ipsos, released August 4, 2020, asked a number of questions related to immigration, including whether respondents supported certain government actions related to immigration during the pandemic. This survey found that, while there was support for immigration restrictions and other government actions to halt the pandemic (see below), support for these temporary restrictions did not taint overall support for immigration and immigrants. For example, 71% of respondents in this survey agreed that “immigrants are an important part of our American identity.” Only 36% agreed with the statement that “most immigrants” to the U.S. “do not easily assimilate into American society.”[xiv]

Public Attitudes on Immigration During the COVID-19 Pandemic

The pandemic related to the spread of the novel coronavirus led to new attacks on immigrants by the Trump administration. As COVID-19 spread throughout the spring and summer, the administration implemented measures to further restrict immigration even beyond administration policies leading up to the pandemic. A few surveys conducted since the virus spread in the U.S. found public support for the temporary halt to immigration ordered by the president in his executive order of April 22. However, as described elsewhere in this report, the general trend of increasingly positive attitudes towards immigrants continued and was measured in polls conducted after the pandemic began.

A survey about immigration conducted in April 2020 by the Huffington Post/YouGov found tolerance for temporary policies to halt migration into the country during the pandemic. In all, 55% of respondents (31% of Democrats, 56% of independents, and 84% of Republicans) thought that limiting immigration to the U.S. was “somewhat” or “very” effective in helping to control the coronavirus outbreak. (A much higher percentage of respondents — 83% — thought social distancing was effective.)[xv]

In the same survey, respondents were asked if they thought immigration into the U.S. was a good thing or a bad thing for the country. Overall, 54% said immigration was a good thing, and only 21% thought immigration was bad for the country. This survey also asked respondents whether they thought immigration into the U.S. had had a positive or negative effect on them personally. A plurality of respondents of all parties said they thought immigration did not have much effect on them personally. Subtracting those answers, Democrats (38%) and independents (20%) were more likely to see immigration as having a positive effect on them personally, while Republicans (24%) were more inclined to say immigration has been a negative influence.[xvi]

A Washington Post/University of Maryland poll conducted in April 2020 asked respondents if they supported “temporarily blocking nearly all immigration into the United States during the coronavirus outbreak.” Overall, 65% of respondents said they supported the policy, and only 34% opposed. Democrats were split 49-49, while most Republican (83%) supported the policy. Two-thirds of independents (67%) were also supportive. This poll did not contain any other questions on immigration and, as noted above, Americans can both support a temporary halt to immigration to prevent the spread of a virus while being positive about immigration in general.[xvii]

A Morning Consult/Politico poll conducted in late April reinforced the findings of other polls showing support for a halt to immigration as a measure to slow the spread of the coronavirus. In this survey, 39% said they “strongly” supported the president’s executive order suspending immigration, and 22% said they “somewhat” supported the measure. However, when asked what their top set of issues were when thinking about how they will vote for U.S. Senate and Congress, only 12% named “security issues,” including border security. Economic and health care issues combined were named by more than half of respondents. In this poll, 30% of respondents said that “passing an immigration reform bill” should be a “top priority” for Congress. (The question did not describe what an immigration reform bill would contain.) On another question, 27% of respondents said that “passing a bill that grants young people who were brought to the United States illegally when they were children” protection from deportation should be a top priority for Congress. An additional 28% said it should be an important priority. Nearly three-quarters of Democrats (71%) and 51% of independents thought that providing protection from deportation for Dreamers should be a priority, but a minority of Republicans (38%) thought so.[xviii]

An Ipsos poll conducted in April 2020 asked respondents whether the government should take a list of actions to stop the threat of the coronavirus. Seventy-nine percent of respondents in this poll agreed that immigration from all other countries should be temporarily stopped. At the same time, respondents were split on the idea of the government providing temporary financial help for undocumented immigrants who cannot work due to layoffs or illness, with 40% agreeing and 42% disagreeing.[xix]

In May, the Pew Research Center released results of a question, included in a larger poll, that sought the opinion of respondents regarding the government’s responsibility to help undocumented immigrants who were adversely affected economically by the pandemic or who were stricken with COVID-19. Respondents were asked whether the federal government should provide medical care for undocumented immigrants who became ill with the coronavirus. In total, more than two-thirds of respondents said they thought the government should provide care. However, less than half (47%) of Republicans and Republican-leaning independents thought so, while 85% of Democrats and Democrat-leaning independents though undocumented immigrants should receive care. The idea that the federal government should provide financial assistance to undocumented immigrants who lost their job due to the pandemic was less popular, with only 37% of respondents saying they thought the federal government had a responsibility to help.[xx]

In mid-July 2020, the Pew Research Center released a poll conducted June 16-22 asking respondents to give their opinions on the seriousness of several problems facing the country. With more than 120,000 deaths recorded in the U.S. by June 22, a little more than a third (37%) of Republicans considered the coronavirus outbreak a “very big problem.” For Republicans, “illegal immigration” was a greater concern, at 43%. Only 15% of Democrats (and independents who lean Democrat) considered illegal immigration a “very big problem.” For Democrats, the coronavirus was a top concern (76%, tied with concern about how racial and ethnic minorities are treated by the justice system). While illegal immigration was a top concern among Republicans and Republican-leaning independents, it was less of a concern in this poll than it was in previous polls. As recently as September 2019, 67% of Republicans and Republican-leaning independents said illegal immigration was a “very big problem.”[xxi]

An NPR/Ipsos poll released August 4 had several questions related to immigration and the federal response to the coronavirus outbreak. Respondents were first asked to cite their three top concerns from a list of 17 issues. In this poll, immigration was way down on the list of people’s concerns — tied with education in 11th place. (COVID-19/coronavirus, not surprisingly, was by far the top concern.) This poll asked respondents if they supported the federal government taking certain immigration-related measures during to contain the pandemic. All received majority support. Respondents said they supported temporarily closing the border (78%); preventing legal immigrants from bringing extended family members to the U.S. (60%); banning then entry of guest workers and seasonal workers (58%); and banning the entry of asylum seekers and refugees (58%). At the same time, half of respondents (49%) in this poll said they supported the federal government sending stimulus checks to undocumented immigrants who pay taxes. (43% opposed.)[xxii]

Views on Legal Immigration

During this period, there was regular discussion and news about the Trump administration’s desire to reshape the legal immigration system to admit fewer immigrants based on family ties and more immigrants based on skills. Some polls asked the public about their views on this topic.

In May 2019, CBS News released a poll with a question about how the government should prioritize when deciding which immigrants to admit. A plurality (48%) thought that priority should be given to immigrants based on education, skills and experience. There was a partisan difference on this question, with Republicans (65%) and independents (48%) placing a priority on skills, and Democrats (54%) placing a priority on family ties.[xxiii]

A June 2019 Harvard/Harris poll asked respondents if they thought it was more important to keep the current immigration system in place, giving preference to family members who have a relative in the U.S., or if the government should change to a system giving preference to skills and education. A majority of respondents (53%) said we should adopt a merit-based system, again with Republicans (60%) and independents (58%) preferring the merit-based system while Democrats (58%) said we should keep the current system giving preference to family members.[xxiv] Asking the same question a month later, the Harvard/Harris poll found slightly less overall support for changing to a merit-based system (52%), with Republicans being more favorable (63%) and Democrats and independents being less favorable than in the prior month (39% and 55%, respectively).[xxv]

A Reuters/Ipsos poll released in August 2019 asked if respondents supported or opposed “making it easier for highly-skilled workers to work in the U.S.” Phrased this way — with no tradeoff in family visas — there was strong support across the board, with 83% of registered Democrats, 74% of Republican registered voters, and 71% of independent registered voters supporting the proposal.[xxvi]

An NPR/Ipsos poll released August 2020, which had a number of immigration-related questions, found that 45% of respondents favored ending the ability of legal immigrants to bring “extended family members” to the U.S. (“Extended family” was not defined.) Just 36% of respondents said they supported ending the Diversity Visa Lottery. Only 34% said they supported the idea of giving priority to immigrants who speak English. Thirty-seven percent of respondents in this poll said they agreed that there were “enough immigrants in America already,” and that the government should “pause further immigration.” [xxvii]

Views on Undocumented Immigrants in the U.S.

While there was not much discussion in Congress of comprehensive immigration reform with a path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants in this period, it was sometimes a subject for discussion among Democrats running for president, and polls continued to ask Americans their thoughts on what should be done with undocumented immigrants living and working in the U.S.

In June 2019, a Harvard/Harris poll asked registered voters if they supported “comprehensive immigration reform” without specifying what that would look like. Nearly three quarters (71%) of respondents said yes, while 29% opposed. Interestingly, with the question posed without conditions or context, Republicans were more favorable (79%) than Democrats (66%) or independents (69%). The same poll asked respondents if they favored or opposed a “mass action” by the government to “roundup and remove thousands of illegal immigrants.” A slight majority (53%) opposed mass deportation. Republicans and Democrats mirrored response to this question, with three-quarters (76%) of Republicans favoring such action and three-quarters (75%) of Democrats opposing. A majority of independents (56%) also opposed mass deportation.[xxviii]

A CNN poll released in July 2019 asked a sample of U.S. adults what they thought the government’s priority should be in handling “immigrants already living in the U.S. illegally.” There was broad support for “developing a plan to allow some people living in the U.S. illegally to become legal residents.” Nearly two-thirds of Republicans (63%), 96% of Democrats, and 81% of independents favored this option. The other option given, “deporting all people living in the U.S. illegally,” garnered only 15% support overall.[xxix]

There were a number of questions in the Quinnipiac poll released at the end of July 2019 about undocumented immigrants in detention. In one question, respondents were asked whether they thought it was better “to keep all undocumented immigrants in detention centers, even if it causes overcrowding and bad conditions” or should they be “released under supervision,” even if it meant some may not return for their court dates. Overall, by a 53 to 31% margin, respondents thought undocumented immigrants should be released from detention to avoid overcrowding. A majority of Democrats (89%) and independents (52%) thought so, while a majority of Republicans (62%) said undocumented immigrants should not be released, even when detention centers were overcrowded with bad conditions.[xxx]

The Pew Research Center released a poll in August 2019 that contained a number of questions on asylum seekers and undocumented immigrants. This poll found that there continued to be strong support for allowing undocumented immigrants to stay in the country legally, if certain conditions are met. Overall, 72% of Americans supported this proposition. Pew noted that support had declined somewhat since March of 2017, driven by declining support among Republicans — 54% of whom said they supported a path to legal status for the undocumented (compared to 61% in 2017). Among Republicans (and Republican-leaning independents), 42% supported a national effort to deport all undocumented immigrants, compared to 23% of the overall public that did so. Most Democrats (87%) supported a path to legal status.[xxxi]

The same Pew poll found generally positive views about undocumented immigrants. For example, 77% believed that undocumented immigrants living in the U.S. fill jobs that citizens don’t want. That percentage included nearly two-thirds (64%) of Republicans and 88% of Democrats. Nearly three-quarters of the public (73%) believed that undocumented immigrants are as honest and hardworking as citizens — with 54% of Republicans and 89% of Democrats believing that.[xxxii]

In August 2019, a Reuters/Ipsos poll was released, asking among other things about a “path to citizenship for illegal immigrants.” Even without specifying conditions, this phrasing was supported by 62% of registered voters. A plurality of Republican voters (but less than a majority at 45%) supported the proposal, while 80% of Democratic voters and 55% of independent voters supported a path to citizenship.[xxxiii] Interestingly, in an accompanying article analyzing the poll, Reuters noted that white Americans were 19 percentage points more supportive of a path to citizenship and 4 percentage points less supportive of increased deportations compared to a Reuters/Ipsos poll from January 2015.[xxxiv]

The Pew Research Center released another poll released in November 2019 (but conducted in September 2019) that sought to gauge public opinion on a number of immigration-related questions. One was about creating a path to citizenship for the undocumented. Respondents were asked how important “establishing a way for most immigrants currently in the country illegally to stay here legally” was for U.S. immigration policy. Two-thirds of respondents (67%) thought this was a “very” (33%) or “somewhat” (34%) important goal. Democrats were much more inclined to say this was an important goal (82%) than Republicans (48%). Pew noted that the percentage of respondents saying this was an important goal has inched up modestly since 2016 across partisan lines — 5% among all respondents, 2% among Republicans, and 6% among Democrats. The same poll asked respondents about deporting those in the country illegally. This goal also gained majority support, with 54% of respondents saying it was “very” (28%) or “somewhat” (26%) important to “increase deportations of immigrants here illegally.” Republicans were nearly three times as likely as Democrats to say increasing deportations was important (83% vs. 31%). Since 2016, Pew noted that Republican support for deportation of the undocumented had edged up by 2 points, while Democratic support had dropped by 10 points.[xxxv]

In a March 2020 analysis of its survey conducted in summer 2019, the Public Religion Research Institute (PRRI) reported that 67% of Americans believed immigrants living in the U.S. illegally should be allowed a way to become citizens, provided that certain conditions were met. An additional 13% said they thought these immigrants should be eligible for permanent residency, but not citizenship. Twenty% said that immigrants living in the U.S. illegally should be identified and deported. PRRI noted that support for a path to citizenship has been stable over the six years prior to this poll, with a slight uptick in support overall (from 63% to 67%). While Democrats were most supportive of this proposal (80%), majority support for a path to citizenship crossed party lines, with 51% of Republicans, and 67% of independents supportive.[xxxvi]

A Huffington Post/YouGov survey from April 2020, conducted as the coronavirus pandemic was in full swing, found that public support for providing a path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants was still high. Overall, 59% of respondents said they “strongly” (31%) or “somewhat” (28%) supported providing a way for undocumented immigrants in the U.S. to become citizens. (The question did not mention conditions, such as background checks, a requirement to learn English, etc., which usually increases the level of support.) In this poll, a majority of Republicans (54%) opposed the proposal, while most Democrats (75%) were in support. A majority of independents (57%) were also supportive.[xxxvii]

Treatment of Undocumented Immigrants Brought to the U.S. as Children

As there has been for several years, there was strong public support during this period for allowing undocumented immigrants brought to the U.S. as children — collectively known as “Dreamers” because they would be eligible for relief under the DREAM Act — to be granted legal status. Several polls during this period reinforced the popularity of this proposal.

In a Fox News poll from June 2019, 73% of respondents favored “allowing illegal immigrants under the age of 30” brought here as children “to legally stay in the country, provided they pass a background check.” Only 24% of respondents opposed this proposal. While a majority of Republicans favored this proposal (58%), that number was significantly lower than Democrats (85%) and independents (76%).[xxxviii]

A Harvard/Harris poll released in August 2019 asked respondents if they supported a deal that would give immigrants brought here by their parents work permits and a path to citizenship in exchange for “increasing merit preference over preference for relatives, eliminating the diversity visa lottery,” and providing funding for “barrier security” on the border with Mexico. There was 62% for this proposal overall, with higher support among Republicans (67%), but still majority support among Democrats (56%) and independents (63%).[xxxix]

In survey analysis released by the Public Religion Research Institute in March 2020, a minority of Republican respondents (42%) were supportive of a proposal to allow immigrants brought illegally to the U.S. as children to gain legal residence here. However, overall support for the proposal has generally been stable over the past few years, with nearly two-thirds (63%) of Americans in support. In the PRRI poll, three-quarters (74%) of Democrats supported legal status for Dreamers, as well as two thirds (67%) of independents.[xl]

As noted above, a Morning Consult/Politico poll conducted in April 2020 after the start of the pandemic found strong support for allowing Dreamers to stay, with 27% of respondents saying that “passing a bill that grants young people who were brought to the United States illegally when they were children” protection from deportation should be a top priority for Congress. An additional 28% said it should be an important priority.[xli]

As the Supreme Court prepared to issue a ruling on the administration’s attempt to end the DACA program,[xlii] a CBS News poll issued June 8 found overwhelming support for allowing “young immigrants brought to the US illegally as children to remain in the country if they meet certain requirements.” Overall, 82% of U.S. adults favored having these young immigrants stay in the U.S. There was strong support across party lines, including nearly three-quarters of Republicans (73%), as well as 84% of independents and nearly all Democrats — 95%.[xliii]

A Politico/Morning Consult poll released on June 17, a day before the Supreme Court decision on DACA, found broad support among registered voters for allowing Dreamers to remain in the U.S. In this poll, 78% of registered voters said that they thought the best way to handle Dreamers was to allow them to stay and become citizens (61%) or allow them to stay but not become citizens (17%). Support for allowing Dreamers to remain in the U.S. crossed party lines, with 89% of Democrats, 75% of independents, and 68% of Republicans — including 69% of Trump voters and 64% who “strongly approve” of the president’s job performance.[xliv]

On the same day, the Pew Research Center released results of a poll with similar showing of support for Dreamers from the public. Asked whether they supported Congress passing a law granting permanent legal status to immigrants who came illegally to the U.S. when they were children, 74% of respondents said they would favor such a law. Nearly all Democrats and Democratic-leaning respondents said they favored this course, while a majority (54%) of Republican and Republican-leaning respondents said they did.[xlv]

Family Separation

In the spring and summer of 2019, surging numbers of families from violence-plagued Central American countries arrived at the U.S. Mexico border seeking asylum. In 2018, the administration adopted a practice of separating parents from their children in order to prosecute the parents for illegal entry. That practice became a political scandal that was the focus of press attention and public outrage. Some public opinion polls from the summer and fall 2019 continued to include questions having to do with this issue.

A Morning Consult/Politico poll from August 2019 found majority opposition to the administration’s policy of separating “parents who illegally cross the U.S. – Mexico border from their children.” Overall, 60% of registered voters opposed the policy, and there was a high level of intensity in that opposition — 47% said they “strongly” opposed it. Just 15% said they “strongly” supported the policy, and an additional 13% somewhat supported the policy. Republicans were supportive of the policy overall, including 33% who said they “strongly” supported the policy, while 73% of Democrats and 46% of independents “strongly” opposed the policy. A somewhat lower percentage of Democrats (65%) and independents (33%) felt strongly that family separation at the U.S. – Mexico border was a “violation of human rights.” Eleven percent of Republicans felt strongly that family separation was a violation of human rights, and an additional 13% somewhat agreed. On the same topic, respondents were asked if they thought “family separation … is needed to deter others who are trying to cross the border.” Democrats tended to “strongly disagree” with this statement (62%), while 37% of Republicans strongly agreed. Independents were also not supportive, with 36% in strong disagreement, and an additional 12% somewhat disagreeing. A fifth of independents (20%) had no opinion. Interestingly, at least some of the respondents who did not support the policy saw it as an “unfortunate consequence of the legal process at the border.” This statement engendered strong disagreement with just 41% of Democrats (vs. 73% who strongly opposed the policy) and 22% of independents (vs. 46% who strongly opposed the policy).[xlvi]

In December 2019, the New York Times reported on a massive public opinion project being conducted by the Democracy Fund and the U.C.L.A. Nationscape Project. The project involves a method of having respondents choose policies they consider important in a way that reduces the possibility that respondents are concealing their true priorities. More than 110,000 people were surveyed in this project. Starting with a list of more than 50 policies and political outcomes (such as impeaching or not impeaching the president) that are presented in sets, the survey ends up with not just the percentage who agree or disagree with the position, but also the “revealed importance” (basically, how often the issue was included in the set of issues chosen by respondents). For Democrats, the number one issue in importance was “don’t separate immigrant children,” with 92% agreeing with that proposition. Among the top nine issues in importance to Democrats, five were immigration related — in addition to opposition to separating immigrant families, there was opposition to the wall, opposition to mass deportation, opposition to the Muslim ban, and providing a path to citizenship to Dreamers.[xlvii] For independent voters, “don’t separate immigrant children” was second highest in importance, and opposition to the wall was included in the top 10 most important issues.[xlviii]

A poll from the Public Religion Research Institute, conducted late summer 2019 (with analysis released March 2020) also found little public support for family separation. Majorities of Republicans (54%), independents (75%) and Democrats (91%) were opposed to the policy, with overall public opposition at 75% of Americans.[xlix]

Asylum Seekers and Refugees

Beyond the separation of families, the Trump administration during this period employed a number of tactics to make it harder for asylum seekers to request asylum upon reaching the U.S. border from Mexico. A number of public opinion polls included questions on this topic.

A CNN poll released in July 2019 found that a solid majority of the public, 60%, favored “allowing refugees from central American countries to seek asylum in the United States.” Only 35% opposed. A majority of Republicans (63%) were opposed, while most Democrats (85%) and 60% of independents were in favor.[l]

In a Morning Consult/Politico poll also released in July 2019, however, a plurality of respondents (41%) said that the U.S. allows “too many” refugees “to settle in the country.” That compared to 24% who said the U.S. allows the “right amount” of refugees to settle, and 15% who believed the U.S. does not allow enough refugees in.[li]

A Gallup poll released in mid-August 2019 noted that 39% of Americans described the “situation at the U.S. border with Mexico” as a crisis. Gallup commented that, over the past quarter century on a range of domestic and international issues where respondents were asked whether the issue rose to a “crisis” in their mind, the question about the situation at the border in this poll measured the second-highest percentage of respondents saying they thought there was a crisis. The perception of crisis, however, did not necessarily translate to support for Trump administration policies at the border. The same poll measured 57% approval for allowing refugees from Central American countries to enter the U.S., and that level of support was greater than six months earlier. The increase in support was driven by a 10% increase in support by Republicans (though they still offered only minority support at 24%). Independent support also increased, from 52 to 58%, in the same period. Support for admitting Central American refugees measured higher than in all similar questions regarding support for the admission of refugees in Gallup polling going back to the 1930s. Only support for the admission of Albanian refugees from Kosovo in 1999 has scored higher.[lii]

The Pew Research Center released a survey in August 2019 that focused on immigration, and there were a number of questions concerning asylum seekers at the border. Most respondents (74%) said it was “very” or “somewhat” important to reduce the number of people coming to the U.S. to seek asylum. This sentiment does not necessarily translate to support for a policy of turning people away once they arrived at the border. Nearly the same percentage (69%) also said it was “very” or “somewhat” important “to provide more assistance to countries in places like Central America, where many asylum seekers are coming from.” In the same survey, half the respondents were asked how important it was “to make it easier for asylum seekers to be granted legal status in the U.S.” A majority (60%) said they thought this was “very” (25%) or “somewhat” (35%) important. The other half of the sample was asked if it was important to make it harder for asylum seekers to gain legal status. This proposal also gained majority support, but less so, with 53% agreeing this was important. As has been the case on many immigration-related issues, there was a significant partisan gap in the responses. Regarding access to legal status for asylum seekers, 77% of Republicans said it was important to make it harder for asylum seekers to gain legal status, while 79% of Democrats said it was important to make it easier for asylum seekers.[liii]

The same Pew poll had questions about the treatment of asylum seekers. Strong majorities of both parties said it was important to “provide safe and sanitary conditions for asylum seekers,” with 73% of Republicans and 91% of Democrats saying so. Most Republicans (83%) and Democrats (89%) also said it was important to increase the number of judges handling asylum cases.[liv]

A different Pew Research poll, released in November 2019 (but conducted in September 2019) asked about the importance of taking in refugees for U.S. immigration policy. Here the survey found a significant increase since 2016 in the percentage of respondents who said that “taking in civilian refugees” escaping violence and war was an important immigration policy goal for the U.S. Overall, nearly three-quarters (73%) of respondents said this was a “very” (32%) or “somewhat” (40%) important goal, compared to 61% in 2016. The increase was driven primarily by an 18% increase in support from Republicans. Support from Democrats had also increased from 2016 levels, but by a smaller percentage (6%).[lv]

The March 2020 Public Religion Research Institute analysis of its summer 2019 public opinion survey included a finding that nearly two-thirds of Americans (64%) opposed passing a law to prevent refugees from entering the U.S. There was a significant partisan split, with more than three-quarters of Democrats (77%) and only 42% of Republicans opposing such a law. Opposition by independents tracked overall public opposition at 64%.[lvi]

The NPR/Ipsos poll released in August 2020 asked respondents whether they agreed that the government should (among other things) ban the entry of asylum seekers and refugees “during the coronavirus pandemic.” Slightly more than half of respondents (58%) agreed. In the same poll, half of respondents (49%) agreed that the U.S. has a “moral obligation to accept refugees facing persecution.” Only 28% supported the denial of asylum to “most victims of domestic abuse or gang violence” (something the administration had proposed in recent regulations).[lvii]

Views on the Administration’s Handling of Immigration

President Trump has made immigration and border enforcement one of the top issue of his administration. The constant press coverage of immigration and the president’s actions related to immigration coincided with an increase in public concern about immigration, which moved towards the top of the list of issues of concern in many public opinion polls during this period. However, Americans in general were often critical of the administration’s immigration policies and practices, though there were usually broad differences in opinion between Democrats and independents on the one hand and Republicans on the other.

A Fox News poll published in mid-June 2019 asked respondents what they thought of the Trump administration’s immigration enforcement policies. Half of respondents (50%) said they thought the administration’s enforcement of immigration laws had “gone too far.” Less than a quarter (24%) thought they had not gone far enough. There was wide partisan disparity in the answers, with 84% of Democrats saying the administration had gone too far, and 47% of Republicans saying the administration had not gone far enough (and another 36% of Republicans saying the administration’s enforcement was “about right”). Independents were in the middle, with 46% believing the administration had gone too far and 19% saying the administration had not gone far enough. The same poll found majority support overall (69%) for “increasing the number of border agents along the U.S.-Mexico border,” with majority support from Republicans (88%), independents (67%) and Democrats (53%).[lviii]

A CNN Poll released in July 2019 found disapproval with the president’s handling of immigration. More than half the public overall (57%) disapproved of the way the president was handling immigration, with a wide gap in attitudes between Republicans and Democrats. Republican approval was at 82%, while only 3% of Democrats approved. Independents disapproved by a margin of 53% to 43%. Looking specifically at the administration’s handling of asylum seekers at the border, the poll asked respondents if they approved or disapproved of the way “migrants attempting to cross the U.S. border are being treated.” Overall, nearly two-thirds (62%) of the public said they disapproved of the way migrants were being treated. The overall response again masked a wide partisan disparity, but there were far more Republicans disapproving of the way migrants were being handled (28%) than there were Democrats approving (5%). A significant majority of independents (60%) also disapproved of the administration’s handling of migrants at the border. Nearly three-quarters of respondents in this poll believed that the situation at the border was a crisis, but they did so for different reasons: 32% of respondents said the crisis was due to the way migrants were being treated, while 34% said there was a crisis because of the numbers of migrants who are attempting to cross the border. Another 23% said they did not think there was a crisis at the border.[lix]

In a Fox News poll released in July 2019, a majority of respondents (54%) disapproved of the way the president was handling immigration. Responses were divided between 80% of Republicans who approved, and 89% of Democrats and 53% of independents who disapproved. The same poll asked respondents how concerned they were about the treatment of migrants on the U.S.-Mexico border. A majority of respondents were “extremely” (31%) or “very” (29%) concerned about how migrants were being treated. While a net 82% of Democrats were concerned, only 36% of Republicans were concerned about the treatment of migrants. Respondents were also asked whether they approved or disapproved “of the job the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency or ICE” was doing. With no context given, 49% of respondents said they disapproved, with a strong majority of Democrats (80%) and a plurality of independents (47%) saying they disapproved. Just 15% of Republicans said they disapproved.[lx]

A question in the Quinnipiac survey released July 30, 2019, asked whether respondents thought the government was “doing enough to ensure humane conditions in immigration detention centers.” A majority (62%) thought the government was not doing enough. A majority of Republicans (58%) were satisfied with the government’s efforts, but most Democrats (90%) and nearly two-thirds of independents (64%) thought the government was not doing enough.[lxi]

In a Harvard/Harris poll released in August 2019, immigration was the top response when respondents were asked what was “the most important issue facing the country,” with 39% of respondents choosing that answer as one of three from a list. Immigration was the top choice overall — beating out health care (38%) and the economy (23%). However, the survey also found that a majority of respondents (55%) disapproved of the job the president was doing on immigration. (The percentage who strongly disapproved was a whopping 41%, according to this survey.) Democrats (86% disapproved) and independents (57% disapproved) were at odds with Republicans, 81% of whom approved of the president’s performance.[lxii]

A Pew Research poll released in August 2019 asked respondents how they would “rate the job the U.S. government is doing” handling asylum seekers at the border. Two-thirds (65%) of respondents rated the government’s handling of asylum seekers as “very bad” (38%) or “somewhat bad” (27%), while one-third (33%) rated the government’s performance as “somewhat good” (27%) or “very good” (6%). While there was a sizeable partisan split about the government’s performance, there were more Republicans who said the government was doing a bad job (44%) than there were Democrats who said the government was doing a good job (15%).[lxiii]

In September 2019, an AP/NORC poll of U.S. adults mostly focusing on race relations, included a question asking respondents whether they approved of the way Donald Trump was handling immigration. Overall, 59% of respondents disapproved of the president’s handling of immigration. While whites were most likely to approve, a majority (51%), disapproved. Blacks were most disapproving (90%), followed by Hispanics (77%).[lxiv]

By January of 2020, with an impeachment trial of the president about to begin in the Senate, immigration ranked fourth in a list of six issues in a CBS News poll asking what respondents thought should be “the top priority for the country.” In this poll, 55% of respondents overall disapproved of the way the president was handling the issue of immigration. Just 37% of independents approved of the president’s job performance in this regard, along with 8% of Democrats. Republicans approved by a margin of 83-12. Respondents in this poll were asked to rate the president’s performance on four issues — foreign policy, the economy, immigration and trade — and the president registered his lowest approval on immigration.[lxv]

Public Opinion in Selected States

While most of the surveys touching on immigration are national surveys, it is also interesting, when data is available, to find out what people are concerned about in different parts of the country. Given that 2020 is an election year, more state-specific polls are being conducted –some of which contain questions touching on immigration. A summary of polling done in a select list of states follows .

Arizona

In an October 2019 poll by Emerson College, 13% of Arizona voters said that immigration was the most important issue for them. Of that 13%, more than half (57%) were Republicans, and another 30% were independents.[lxvi]

In October 2019, a poll conducted by the New York Times and Sienna College found a majority of Arizona voters opposed to reducing legal immigration, with 33% “strongly opposed,” and 20% “somewhat opposed.” Forty-six% were in favor of reducing legal immigration. Democrats and Republicans were on opposite sides, with 64% of Democrats opposed and 58% of Republicans in favor of reducing legal immigration.[lxvii]

In March 2020 poll of Arizona registered voters by Latino Decisions, Univision, and Arizona State University, respondents were asked “what are the most important issues facing your community” that should be addressed by Congress and the president. In a list of 20 issues, “border security to control immigration” was named by 21% of respondents, ranking second overall – only behind health care costs% . There was wide partisan disparity, with only 4% of Democrats naming the issue as a top concern, while it was the number one issue for Republicans, at 41%. For independents, border security ranked as the fourth most important issue, at 15%. The poll also showed there was strong support for providing a path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants brought to the U.S. as children and who “were raised in this country.” Seventy-three% of Arizona voters support that policy, including 43% who “strongly support” it. Majority support extended across party lines with 53% of Republicans, 74% of independents, and 91% of Democrats supporting this proposal.[lxviii] Strong support for this proposal among Arizona registered voters is noteworthy considering that in 2006, Arizonans voted to prohibit young undocumented immigrants from receiving in-state tuition for attendance at state colleges and universities.[lxix]

Florida

Florida Atlantic University released a poll of registered voters in September 2019 in which immigration was ranked as the second most important issue that voters will consider in deciding their vote. The economy (21%) beat out immigration (19%) and health care (18%). In this poll, immigration was the top-ranked issue for independents (25%), and ranked second for Republicans (21%), behind the economy.[lxx]

In an October 2019 survey of registered voters by the University of North Florida, respondents named immigration second to health care as the most important problem facing the U.S. For Republicans (29%) and independents (17%), immigration was the top issue, while it ranked fourth (tied with education at 9%) for Democrats.[lxxi]

In March 2020, Univision and Latino Decisions conducted a poll of Florida registered voters. For Florida voters, “border security to control immigration” ranked second in a list of 20 issues given to them when asked what the “most important issue” they thought was facing their community. For Republicans, border security (named by 25%) followed right behind lowering health care costs (26%). For voters overall, though border security was ranked second at 16%, “lowering the costs of health care” was chosen by twice as many (32%). For Democrats, border security ranked thirteenth (named by 5%). Sixteen% of independents chose border security, which ranked second (tied with “improving wages and incomes”). Three in four Florida voters strongly (45%) or somewhat (30%) support “creating a permanent pathway to citizenship” for undocumented immigrants who were brought to the U.S. as children. Support bridged party lines: Democrats (91%); Republicans (62%) and independents (74%).[lxxii]

Georgia

Climate Nexus conducted a poll of Georgia registered voters in November 2019 and, among other things, asked what issues were important to Georgians. Asked to choose which two issues were the most important to them in deciding whom to vote for in the presidential election, 19% selected immigration as one of the two issues. Only two issues — health care and the economy and jobs — were selected by a greater percentage of Georgia voters. Given a list of 13 issues and asked whether each was a problem for their local area, 68% thought “illegal immigration” was a “very serious problem” or a “somewhat serious problem,” ranking eighth among the 13 issues.[lxxiii]

Michigan

An Emerson College poll released in November 2019 included a question in which respondents ranked issues they considered the most important issue for influencing their vote in the upcoming presidential election. Immigration ranked sixth in a list of nine issues. Five% of respondents cited immigration.[lxxiv]

A February 2020 Quinnipiac swing state poll that included Michigan also found immigration down on a list of concerns. When asked which issue was most important to them in deciding who to vote for in the presidential election, the economy ranked first overall (35%) as well as with Republicans (52%) and independents (42%). Immigration ranked fourth in a list of six, with 9% of voters choosing immigration. A greater percentage of independents (10%) named immigration than did Democrats (9%) or Republicans (8%).[lxxv]

In April 2020, as the country was reeling from the coronavirus pandemic, Ipsos conducted a survey in battleground states. Not surprisingly, respondents were most concerned about the pandemic and the economy than with other issues. When asked their opinion of the most important issue facing their community, the top issues for Michigan respondents overall were Coronavirus/COVID-19 (50%) and the economy (14%). Only 2% named immigration out of a list of 10 issues. In this poll, respondents were asked to name a candidate trait that would be the most important factor in their choice for president. “Strong on immigration” was at the bottom of a list of four choices, chosen by 3% of respondents.[lxxvi]

The same Ipsos poll in Michigan found that 55% of respondent thought that, regarding immigration policy, things were “off on the wrong track,” compared to 44% who thought “things are heading in the right direction.” Overall, 52% of respondents disapproved of the way the president was handling immigration, including 38% who “strongly” disapproved.[lxxvii]

Ohio

In October 2019, a survey of registered voters in Ohio by Climate Nexus contained a question to gauge the importance of various issues to Ohio voters. Respondents were asked which two issues from a list of 14 were the most important to their vote for president. Twenty-one% of voters chose immigration as one of their two issues. Immigration ranked third, behind health care and jobs/economy. For Ohio Republicans, it was the number one issue, with 36% choosing immigration. Only 13% of independents and 9% of Democrats selected immigration. Sixty-two% of Ohio voters thought that “illegal immigration” was a “very serious problem” or a “somewhat serious problem” for their local area. But voters expressed greater concern about nine other issues in a list of 13 total.[lxxviii]

A Baldwin Wallace University survey from March 2020 found that security issues — “terrorism, foreign policy, and border security” — ranked third with Ohio voters in a list of six sets of issues that voters considered their top set of issues influencing their vote for president. Fifteen% of voters picked security issues. For Republicans, security issues were chosen by 24% of respondents, and for these voters, security issues and health care were essentially tied for second place below economic issues. Only 9% of Democrats and 12% of independents picked security issues.[lxxix]

A month later, as the economic effects of the pandemic were clearly in focus, the Baldwin Wallace University poll found that fewer voters picked security issues as their top concern, with the economy and health care more a concern. Security issues were still the second most cited set of issues for Republicans, at 22%.[lxxx]

Pennsylvania

In November 2019, Muhlenberg College conducted a survey of registered voters in Pennsylvania and, among other things, asked about the president’s performance on a set of issues. A majority of respondents in this survey (53%) said they thought the president was doing a poor job of “[d]ealing with illegal immigration,” compared to 28% who thought he was doing an “excellent” job and 12% who thought his performance was “good.”[lxxxi]

In a Quinnipiac University swing state poll released in February 2020, immigration ranked fifth in a list of six issues considered “most important” in deciding whom to vote for in the presidential election (chosen by just 10% of voters). It was the second-ranked issue for Republicans; 18% of Republican Pennsylvania voters chose immigration. Only 6% of Democrats chose immigration, and 7% of independents.[lxxxii]

Another Muhlenberg College survey released in February 2020 asked an open-ended question to gauge what were the most important issues voters considered in making their decision for whom to vote. Immigration was cited by 4% of voters, placing the issue in a three-way tie for sixth (along with “keeping Trump” and “social justice/equality”) among 18 issues named by  at least 1% of voters. In this poll, 53% of voters disapproved of President Trump’s handling of immigration (including 41% who “strongly” disapproved), while 42% of voters “strongly” (33%) or “somewhat” (9%) approved of the president’s handling of immigration.[lxxxiii]

In an Ipsos poll that included a sample of Pennsylvania adults, released April 23, 2020, only 3% of Pennsylvanians said that immigration was the most important problem facing their community. By this time, the coronavirus pandemic was widespread in the U.S. and was the top concern of half (49%) of Pennsylvanians. When asked if “strong on immigration” would be the most important trait in a presidential candidate in deciding their vote, only 4% said yes. In the same poll, more than half (54%) thought that “immigration policy” in this country was headed on the wrong track.[lxxxiv]

Texas

In January of 2020, a Texas Lyceum poll of adults in the state found that immigration was the second-most common response to an open-ended question about the most important issue facing the country today. Ten% of respondents named immigration. Health care placed first, edging out immigration at 11%. Border security was the response of an additional 3%. However, when asked what was the most important issue facing Texas, 19% answered “immigration,” which was the top issue, followed by “border security” at 9%.[lxxxv]

In a poll conducted by the University of Texas at Tyler, released in February 2020, a plurality of respondents (38%) “strongly” supported the decision of Governor Greg Abbott to block refugees from resettling in Texas. An additional 15% of respondents said they supported the decision. Thirty-two% of respondents opposed the decision.[lxxxvi]

A poll of Texas registered voters was conducted in late February 2020 by Univision, the University of Houston and Latino Decisions. Respondents were asked what they thought were the most important issues for their community that the president and Congress should address. Overall for these voters, “border security to control immigration” was the number two issue in a list of 20, with 19% of voters giving this response. More than a third of Republicans (36%) gave this answer, while only 3% of Democrats and 13% of independents named this issue. The same poll asked whether the respondent supported or opposed creating a pathway to citizenship for Dreamers. A plurality (42%) “strongly” supported this proposal, with an additional 34% “somewhat” supportive. More than three-in-five Republicans (61%) were supportive, while 92% of Democrats and 77% of independents supported a pathway to citizenship for Dreamers.[lxxxvii]

In a University of Texas/Texas Tribune poll released on April 25, 2020, registered voters were asked what they thought was the most important issue facing the country today. Among voters overall, in a list of five issues, immigration ranked last at 5%. Notably, this poll was conducted while the pandemic was in full swing, and a plurality of voters understandably named COVID-19 as the most important problem. For Republicans, immigration was tied for third, at 9%, but only 1% of Democrats and 6% of independents chose immigration as the most important issue. Respondents were also asked what they thought was the most important issue facing Texas. Immigration and border security separately were included in the top five responses, with 15% of voters overall citing these issues. Republicans were much more inclined to cite these issues (28%) than Democrats (1%) or independents (8%). Respondents in this poll were asked whether they thought the U.S. allowed too many legal immigrants to come to the U.S. A plurality of Texas voters (39%) thought there were too many immigrants allowed to come here, but as with many immigration questions, there was a gaping partisan difference. Nearly two-thirds of Republicans (62%) said there were too many, while nearly three-quarters of Democrats thought there were about the right amount (38%) or too few (34%). A plurality of independent voters (34%) also said there were too many. Regarding undocumented immigrants, 49% of Texas voters agreed with the statement, “Undocumented immigrants currently living in the United States should be deported immediately.” Three-quarters (75%) of Republicans agreed that undocumented immigrants should be deported immediately, including 47% who “strongly” agreed. A strong majority of Democrats (72%) disagreed, including 54% who “strongly” disagreed. Independents, by a margin of 46 to 35%, also agreed that undocumented immigrants should be deported immediately.[lxxxviii]

Wisconsin

In August 2019, Marquette University Law school conducted a survey of Wisconsin registered voters, which included a question on diversity in America. Respondents overwhelmingly responded positively when asked whether “an increasing number of people of many different races, ethnic groups and nationalities … makes this country a better place to live….” Just 4% said diversity makes the country a worse place to live. Two-thirds (65%) said diversity makes the country a better place to live, while 27% said it makes no difference. There was a significant difference between Republican registered voters and Democratic voters, with 53% of Republicans saying diversity made the country a better place and 76% of Democrats saying so. Still, only 8% of Republicans felt that diversity made the country a worse place to live. The percentage of registered voters who agreed that diversity made the country a better place to live is up 12% since the question was asked in October 2016, while the percentage of people who though diversity made the country a worse place is less than half what it was in 2016 (when it was 9%).[lxxxix]

Fox News released a poll in October 2019 asking Wisconsin voters what would be the most important issue in deciding their vote for president in 2020. “Immigration and border security” was chosen by 12% of voters, ranking it third in a list of nine issues. For Republicans, it was the second-ranked issue, chosen by 23%. For Democrats, it was ranked seventh, with 4% choosing that issue. Eight percent of independents said immigration and border security was their top issue.[xc]

A January 2020 poll from Marquette University law school asked a sample of registered voters whether they thought the number of legal immigrants should be increased, reduced, or kept the same. A plurality, 41%, thought that the number of legal immigrants coming to the U.S. should be kept the same. More than a third responded that the number should be increased. Only 20% thought legal immigration should be decreased. While there were partisan differences, they weren’t dramatic. A plurality of Republicans (43%) and independents (42%) said that the number of legal immigrants should be kept the same, while half of Democrats (50%) said the number should be increased. This poll was conducted shortly before the economic impacts of the coronavirus pandemic began to be felt.[xci]

In a Quinnipiac poll released in February 2020, Wisconsin voters were asked what was the most important issue for them in deciding who to vote for in the presidential election. Immigration was tied at the bottom of the list of six, along with gun policy and the Supreme Court, with each of those issues cited by 8% of respondents. Partisans cited different priorities among those listed, but immigration ranked lower down among the concerns of Republicans (11%), independents (9%) and Democrats (5%).[xcii]

Another Marquette University Law School poll, conducted in February 2020, asked Wisconsin voters what they thought should be done about undocumented immigrants currently working in the U.S. Two-thirds of voters (67%) believed that undocumented immigrant workers should be allowed to stay and apply for citizenship. An additional 7% thought they should be allowed to stay, but as temporary guest workers. Only 7% thought they should be required to leave their jobs and leave the U.S. Across party lines, a majority said they thought undocumented workers should be allowed to apply for citizenship — 52% of Republicans, 63% of independents, and 88% of Democrats. Only 26% of Republicans and 13% of independents thought undocumented workers should be required to leave.[xciii]

In an Ipsos poll released in April 2020, respondents were asked what they thought was the most important issue facing their community. From a list of 10 issues, 2% of respondents chose immigration (with nearly half choosing “coronavirus/COVID-19”). From a list of four traits proposed in a presidential candidate, “strong on immigration” was chosen by just 4% of respondents. In this poll, there were more respondents who “strongly” disapproved (33%) of the way the president was handling the immigration issue than there were who “strongly” approved (25%).[xciv]

* * *

Endnotes

[i] Reuters/Ipsos, “Core Political Data,” June 6, 2019, https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/ct/news/documents/2019-06/2019_reuters_tracking_-_core_political_2020_democratic_primary_tracker_06_06_2019_0.pdf. Conducted: May 29-June 5, 2019. Sample: 4,416 U.S. adults. Relevant question: “In your opinion, what is the most important problem facing the U.S. today?”

[ii] Gallup, “Mentions of Immigration as Top Problem Surpass Record High,” July 23, 2019, https://news.gallup.com/poll/261500/mentions-immigration-top-problem-surpass-record-high.aspx.

[iii] Gallup, “New High in U.S. Say Immigration Most Important Problem,” June 21, 2019. Report: https://news.gallup.com/poll/259103/new-high-say-immigration-important-problem.aspx. Poll: http://news.gallup.com/file/poll/259121/190621Immigration.pdf. Conducted: June 3-16. Sample: 1,015 U.S. adults. Relevant questions: 1) “What do you think is the most important problem facing this country today?” 2) “On the whole, do you think immigration is a good thing or a bad thing for this country today?” 3) “Do you think immigrants mostly help the economy by providing low-cost labor, or mostly hurt the economy by driving wages down for many Americans?” 4) “In your view, should immigration be kept at its present level, increased or decreased?”

[iv] Morning Consult/Politico National Tracking Poll, https://www.politico.com/f/?id=0000016b-fcca-d1de-ab6b-fefb7bad0001. Conducted: July 12-14, 2019. Sample: 1,984 registered voters nationwide. Relevant question: “Which of the following statements is closest to your view, even if neither are exactly right? Legal immigrants in the United States today strengthen our country because of their hard work and talents [or] Legal immigrants in the United States today are a burden on our country because they take our housing, health care and jobs.”

[v] Quinnipiac University, “Trump Is Racist, Half Of U.S. Voters Say, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds; But Voters Say Almost 2-1 Don’t Impeach President,” July 30, 2019, https://poll.qu.edu/national/release-detail?ReleaseID=3636. Conducted: July 25-28, 2019. Sample: 1,306 voters nationwide. Relevant question: “Overall, do you believe that immigration is good for the country or bad for the country?”

[vi] Public Religion Research Institute, “A Nation of Immigrants? Diverging Perceptions of Immigrants Increasingly Marking Partisan Divides,” March 12, 2020, https://www.prri.org/research/a-nation-of-immigrants-diverging-perceptions-of-immigrants-increasingly-marking-partisan-divides/. Toplines: https://www.prri.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/PRRI_Mar_2020_Immigration-2-1.pdf. Conducted: August 22 – September 15, 2019. Sample: 2,527 U.S. adults. Relevant question: “Thinking about some issues that are important to people, how important are the following issues to you personally? For each issue, please say whether it is a critical issue to you, one among many important issues, or not that important compared to other issues: [immigration].”

[vii] Public Religion Research Institute, “A Nation of Immigrants?” Relevant questions: 1) Would you say that, in general, the growing number of newcomers from other countries… [threatens traditional American customs and values], [strengthens American society] or [neither/both equally]” 2) “Please tell me if you completely agree, mostly agree, mostly disagree or completely disagree with each one: [Immigrants are invading our country and replacing our cultural and ethnic background.]”

[viii] Public Religion Research Institute, “A Nation of Immigrants?” Relevant question: “Which of the following statements comes closer to your own views? a.) Immigrants today strengthen our country because of their hard work and talents; b.) Immigrants today are a burden on our country because they take our jobs, housing and health care.”

[ix] Public Religion Research Institute, “A Nation of Immigrants?” Relevant question: “In general, how well do you think each of the following describes immigrants coming to the U.S. today? a.) They are hardworking; b.) They make an effort to learn English; c.) They mostly keep to themselves; d.) They have strong family values.”

[x] CBS News, “Americans weigh in on issues before the Supreme Court – CBS News poll,” June 8, 2020, https://drive.google.com/file/d/1BIG9z6d4OdhprnhaqQN0-xbrwE14NPl3/view. Conducted: May 29 – June 2, 2020. Sample: 1,309 U.S. adults. Relevant question: “Generally, do you think immigrants coming to the United States make American society better in the long run, make American society worse in the long run, or don’t you think immigrants coming to the U.S. have much of an effect on American society one way or the other?”

[xi] Pew Research Center, “A majority of Americans say immigrants mostly fill jobs U.S. citizens do not want,” June 10, 2020, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/06/10/a-majority-of-americans-say-immigrants-mostly-fill-jobs-u-s-citizens-do-not-want/. Conducted: April 29 – May 5, 2020. Sample: 10,957 U.S. adults. Relevant questions (https://www.pewresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/jobs-topline-W67.pdf): 1) “When it comes to undocumented immigrants currently in the U.S, which comes closer to your view? Undocumented immigrants mostly fill jobs that American citizens would like to have [or] undocumented immigrants mostly fill jobs American citizens don’t want?” 2) When it comes to legal immigrants currently in the U.S, which comes closer to your view? Legal immigrants mostly fill jobs that American citizens would like to have [or] legal immigrants mostly fill jobs American citizens don’t want?”

[xii] Public Religion Research Institute, “Generation Z, Immigration, and the Fall Election,” June 25, 2020, https://www.prri.org/spotlight/generation-z-immigration-and-the-fall-election/.

[xiii] Gallup, “Americans Want More, Not Less, Immigration for First Time,” July 1, 2020, https://news.gallup.com/poll/313106/americans-not-less-immigration-first-time.aspx. Conducted: May 28-June 4, 2020. Sample: 1,034 U.S. adults. Relevant questions (https://news.gallup.com/file/poll/313139/20200701Immigration.pdf): 1) “In your view, should immigration be kept at its present level, increased or decreased?” 2) “On the whole, do you think immigration is a good thing or a bad thing for this country today?”

[xiv] NPR/Ipsos, “Most Americans support single, national strategy to combat COVID-19,” August 4, 2020, https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/ct/news/documents/2020-08/topline_npr_covid_and_immigration_080420.pdf. Conducted: July 30-31, 2020. Sample: 1,115 U.S. adults. Relevant question: 1) “Do you agree or disagree with the following statements?” a.) “Immigrants are an important part of our American identity.” e.) “Most immigrants to the United States do not easily assimilate into American society.”

[xv] Huffington Post, “Poll: A Pandemic Hasn’t Done Much To Change Americans’ Views On Immigration,” April 24, 2020, https://www.huffpost.com/entry/immigration-coronavirus-poll_n_5ea36346c5b6d376358fa7cc. Crosstabs: https://big.assets.huffingtonpost.com/athena/files/2020/04/24/5ea36063c5b669fd8924eb69.pdf. Conducted: April 22-24, 2020. Sample: 1,000 U.S. citizens. Relevant question: “How effective do you think limiting immigration to the U.S. is in helping to control the U.S. coronavirus outbreak?”

[xvi] Huffington Post, “Poll: A Pandemic Hasn’t Done Much To Change Americans’ Views On Immigration,” April 24, 2020, https://www.huffpost.com/entry/immigration-coronavirus-poll_n_5ea36346c5b6d376358fa7cc. Crosstabs: https://big.assets.huffingtonpost.com/athena/files/2020/04/24/5ea36063c5b669fd8924eb69.pdf. Conducted: April 22-24, 2020. Sample: 1,000 U.S. citizens. Relevant questions: 1) “On the whole, do you think immigration into the U.S. is [a good thing for the country] or [a bad thing for the country]?” 2) On the whole, do you think immigration into the U.S.: [has a positive effect on me personally], [has a negative effect on me personally] or [doesn’t have much effect on me personally]?”

[xvii] Washington Post, “Washington Post-University of Maryland national poll, April 21-26, 2020,” May 5, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/context/washington-post-university-of-maryland-national-poll-april-21-26-2020/3583b4e9-66be-4ed6-a457-f6630a550ddf/. Crosstabs: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1evYWT-YmsJb5UX84u_l7CgmpY-1T4Hvtiu1R4KO3_oA/edit#gid=0. Conducted: April 21-26, 2020. Sample: 1008 U.S. adults. Relevant question: “Would you support or oppose temporarily blocking nearly all immigration into the United States during the coronavirus outbreak?”

[xviii] Morning Consult/Politico, “National Tracking Poll,” https://www.politico.com/f/?id=00000171-c28c-d9e7-a3f1-cadfcf590000. Crosstabs: https://www.politico.com/f/?id=00000171-c292-d6b3-a579-def782020000. Conducted: April 24-26, 2020. Sample: 1,991 registered voters. Relevant questions: 1) “As you may know, earlier this week President Trump signed an executive order suspending the issuance of green cards for 60 days, temporarily suspending immigration to the United States. Based on what you know, do you support or oppose President Trump’s decision to suspend immigration to the United States?” 2) “Thinking about your vote, what would you say is the top set of issues on your mind when you cast your vote for federal offices such as U.S. Senate or Congress?” [security issues – like terrorism, foreign policy, and border security] 3) How important of a priority should each of the following be for Congress? [passing an immigration reform bill] 4) How important of a priority should each of the following be for Congress? [Passing a bill that grants young people who were brought to the United States illegally when they were children, often with their parents, protection from deportation]

[xix] Ipsos, “Perceived level of threat COVID-19 poses to the U.S. and individuals doubles in less than a month,” April 13, 2020, https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/ct/news/documents/2020-04/topline_usa_today_coronavirus_w2_041320.pdf. Conducted: April 9-10, 2020. Sample: 1,005 adults. Relevant question: “Which of the following actions, if any, should the U.S. government take regarding coronavirus or COVID-19?” [Temporarily stop immigration from all other countries] [Provide temporary financial help for undocumented immigrants who cannot work due to layoffs or illness]

[xx] Pew Research Center, “Americans favor medical care but not economic aid for undocumented immigrants affected by COVID-19,” May 20, 2020, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/05/20/americans-favor-medical-care-but-not-economic-aid-for-undocumented-immigrants-affected-by-covid-19/. Conducted: April 29 – May 5, 2020. Sample: 10,957 U.S. adults. Relevant question (https://www.pewresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/W67-Topline_revised.pdf): “Thinking about undocumented immigrants in the U.S., do you think the federal government has a responsibility to do the following: a. Provide economic help to undocumented immigrants who have lost their job due to the coronavirus outbreak? b. Provide medical care to undocumented immigrants who are ill with coronavirus?”

[xxi] Pew Research Center, “As the U.S. copes with multiple crises, partisans disagree sharply on severity of problems facing the nation,” July 14, 2020, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/07/14/as-the-u-s-copes-with-multiple-crises-partisans-disagree-sharply-on-severity-of-problems-facing-the-nation/. Conducted: June 16-22, 2020. Sample: 4,708 U.S. adults. Relevant question (https://www.pewresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/national-problems-topline.pdf): How much of a problem do you think each of the following are in the country today? [A very big problem]”

[xxii] NPR/Ipsos, “Most Americans support single, national strategy to combat COVID-19,” August 4, 2020, https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/ct/news/documents/2020-08/topline_npr_covid_and_immigration_080420.pdf. Conducted: July 30-31, 2020. Sample: 1,115 U.S. adults. Relevant questions: 1) “Should the federal government restrict immigration to the U.S. during the coronavirus pandemic by doing each of the following?” a.) “Preventing legal immigrants from bringing their extended family members to the U.S.;” b.) “Banning the entry of foreign guest workers and seasonal workers into the U.S.;” c.) “Banning the entry of asylum seekers and refugees into the U.S.;” d.) “Temporarily closing the U.S. border, except for essential travel;” 2) “Do you support or oppose each of the following immigration-related proposals?” f.) “Providing a federal stimulus check to undocumented immigrants who pay U.S. taxes.”

[xxiii] CBS News Poll, “Americans Feel Good About the Economy and Give Trump Credit,” May 22, 2019, https://drive.google.com/file/d/0ByVu4fDHYJgVOEdJQ2dhNkhtYXR6ejVVWURIbm94LXFsUEs4/view. Conducted May 17-20, 2019. Sample: 1,001 adults nationwide. Relevant question: “When the U.S. government is deciding which immigrants to admit to this country, should priority be given to people who have family members already living in the U.S., or should priority be given to people based on education, job skills and work experience?”

[xxiv] Harvard CAPS/Harris Poll, June 2019, https://harvardharrispoll.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/HHP_June19_FULL-r2-vFinal-7-1-19.pdf. [Crosstabs: https://harvardharrispoll.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/HHP_June19_RVs_Crosstabs.pdf.] Conducted: June 26-29, 2019. Sample: 2,182 U.S. registered voters. Relevant question: “In your view is it more important to keep in place the current immigration system that gives preference to legal migrants that have a relative in the United States or should we change to a merit-based system that gives preference to legal migrants based on skill and educational attainment?”

[xxv] Monthly Harvard-Harris Poll: July 2019, https://harvardharrispoll.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/HHP_July2019_Crosstabs_RegisteredVoters-1.pdf. Conducted: July 31-August 1, 2019. Sample: 2,214 registered voters.

[xxvi] Reuters/Ipsos Poll, “Perceptions on Race in America,” August 19, 2019, https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/ct/news/documents/2019-08/topline_reuters_race_poll_08_19_2019_with_write_up.pdf. Conducted: July 16-22, 2019. Sample: 4,436 U.S. adults, including 3,879 registered voters. Relevant question: “Overall, do you approve or disapprove of making it easier for highly skilled workers to work in the U.S.”

[xxvii] NPR/Ipsos, “Most Americans support single, national strategy to combat COVID-19,” August 4, 2020, https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/ct/news/documents/2020-08/topline_npr_covid_and_immigration_080420.pdf. Conducted: July 30-31, 2020. Sample: 1,115 U.S. adults. Relevant questions: 1) “Do you support or oppose each of the following immigration-related proposals?” c.) “Ending the Diversity Visa Lottery system, which is aimed at bringing in immigrants from nations that are under-represented here.” d.) “Ending the ability of legal immigrants to bring their extended family members to the U.S.” 2) “Do you agree or disagree with the following statements?” d.) “The U.S. should give priority to immigrants who speak English.” f.) “There are enough immigrants in America already, and our government needs to pause further immigration.”

[xxviii] Harvard CAPS/Harris Poll, June 2019, https://harvardharrispoll.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/HHP_June19_FULL-r2-vFinal-7-1-19.pdf. [Crosstabs: https://harvardharrispoll.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/HHP_June19_RVs_Crosstabs.pdf.] Conducted: June 26-29, 2019. Sample: 2,182 U.S. registered voters. Relevant questions: 1) “Do you support comprehensive immigration reform?” 2) “Would you favor or oppose a mass action by the U.S. government to roundup and remove thousands of illegal immigrants from the United States?”

[xxix] CNN Poll, July 2, 2019, http://cdn.cnn.com/cnn/2019/images/07/02/rel8b.-.trump,.immigration.pdf. Conducted: June 28-30, 2019. Sample: 1,613 U.S. adults. Relevant question: “In dealing with immigrants ALREADY LIVING IN THE U.S. illegally, should the government’s top priority be: [Deporting all people living in the U.S. illegally] [Developing a plan to allow some people living in the U.S. illegally to become legal residents]”

[xxx] Quinnipiac University, “Trump Is Racist, Half Of U.S. Voters Say, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds; But Voters Say Almost 2-1 Don’t Impeach President,” July 30, 2019, https://poll.qu.edu/national/release-detail?ReleaseID=3636. Conducted: July 25-28, 2019. Sample: 1,306 voters nationwide. Relevant question: “Which comes closer to your point of view: A) it is better to keep all undocumented immigrants in detention centers, even if it causes overcrowding and bad conditions, or B) it is better to allow some undocumented immigrants to be released under supervision if there is not sufficient room, even if it means some of them will not return for their court dates?”

[xxxi] Pew Research Center, “Public’s Priorities for U.S. Asylum Policy: More Judges for Cases, Safe Conditions for Migrants,” August 12, 2019, https://www.people-press.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2019/08/PP_2019.08.12_Immigration_FINAL-1.pdf. Conducted: July 22 – August 4, 2019. Sample: 4,175. Relevant questions: 1) “Which comes closer to your view about how to handle undocumented immigrants who are now living in the U.S.?” [“There should be a way for them to stay in the country legally, if certain requirements are met.”] [If opposed: “Do you think there should be a national law enforcement effort to deport all immigrants who are now living in the U.S. illegally, or should that not be done?”]

[xxxii] Pew Research Center, “Public’s Priorities for U.S. Asylum Policy: More Judges for Cases, Safe Conditions for Migrants,” August 12, 2019, https://www.people-press.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2019/08/PP_2019.08.12_Immigration_FINAL-1.pdf. Conducted: July 22 – August 4, 2019. Sample: 4,175. Relevant questions: “When it comes to undocumented immigrants currently in the U.S, which comes closer to your view?” 1) “Undocumented immigrants mostly filled jobs that Americans would like to have.” [or] “Undocumented immigrants mostly fill jobs American citizens don’t want.” 2) “In general, undocumented immigrants are as honest and hardworking as American citizens.” [or] “In general, undocumented immigrants are NOT as honest and hardworking as American citizens.”

[xxxiii] Reuters/Ipsos Poll, “Perceptions on Race in America,” August 19, 2019, https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/ct/news/documents/2019-08/topline_reuters_race_poll_08_19_2019_with_write_up.pdf. Conducted: July 16-22, 2019. Sample: 4,436 U.S. adults, including 3,879 registered voters. Relevant question: “Overall, to you approve or disapprove of creating a path to citizenship for illegal immigrants?”

[xxxiv] Chris Kahn, “For Trump, appeals to white fears about race may be a tougher sell in 2020: Reuters/Ipsos poll,” Reuters, August 19, 2019, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-election-race-poll/for-trump-appeals-to-white-fears-about-race-may-be-a-tougher-sell-in-2020-reuters-ipsos-poll-idUSKCN1V90TX.

[xxxv] Pew Research Center, “Americans’ immigration policy priorities: Divisions between – and within – the two parties,” November 12, 2019, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/11/12/americans-immigration-policy-priorities-divisions-between-and-within-the-two-parties/. Conducted: September 3-15, 2019. Sample: 9,895. Relevant questions: Thinking about the issue of immigration, how important of a goal should each of the following be for immigration policy in the U.S.: 1) Establishing a way for most immigrants currently in the country illegally to stay here legally.” 2) “Increasing deportations of immigrants currently in the country illegally.”

[xxxvi] Public Religion Research Institute, “A Nation of Immigrants? Diverging Perceptions of Immigrants Increasingly Marking Partisan Divides,” March 12, 2020, https://www.prri.org/research/a-nation-of-immigrants-diverging-perceptions-of-immigrants-increasingly-marking-partisan-divides/. Toplines: https://www.prri.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/PRRI_Mar_2020_Immigration-2-1.pdf. Conducted: August 22 – September 15, 2019. Sample: 2,527 U.S. adults. Relevant question: “Which statement comes closest to your view about how the immigration system should deal with immigrants who are currently living in the U.S. illegally? The immigration system should… [allow them a way to become citizens provided they meet certain requirements]; [allow them to become permanent legal residents, but not citizens]; or [identify and deport them].”

[xxxvii] Huffington Post, “Poll: A Pandemic Hasn’t Done Much To Change Americans’ Views On Immigration,” April 24, 2020, https://www.huffpost.com/entry/immigration-coronavirus-poll_n_5ea36346c5b6d376358fa7cc. Crosstabs: https://big.assets.huffingtonpost.com/athena/files/2020/04/24/5ea36063c5b669fd8924eb69.pdf. Conducted: April 22-24, 2020. Sample: 1,000 U.S. citizens. Relevant question: “Do you support or oppose providing a legal way for undocumented immigrants already in the United States to become US citizens?”

[xxxviii] Fox News Poll, June 16, 2019, https://www.scribd.com/document/413536427/Fox-News-Poll-June-16. Conducted: June 9-12, 2019. Sample: 1,001 registered voters nationwide. Relevant question: Please tell me if you favor or oppose … Allowing illegal immigrants under the age of 30 who were brought to the United States as children to legally stay in the country, provided they pass a background check.”

[xxxix] Monthly Harvard-Harris Poll: July 2019, https://harvardharrispoll.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/HHP_July2019_Crosstabs_RegisteredVoters-1.pdf. Conducted: July 31-August 1, 2019. Sample: 2,214 registered voters. Relevant question: “Would you favor or oppose a deal between Congress and President Trump that gives undocumented immigrants brought here by their parents work permits and a path to citizenship in exchange for increasing merit preference over preference for relatives, eliminating the diversity visa lottery, and funding barrier security on the U.S.-Mexico border?”

[xl] Public Religion Research Institute, “A Nation of Immigrants? Diverging Perceptions of Immigrants Increasingly Marking Partisan Divides,” March 12, 2020, https://www.prri.org/research/a-nation-of-immigrants-diverging-perceptions-of-immigrants-increasingly-marking-partisan-divides/. Toplines: https://www.prri.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/PRRI_Mar_2020_Immigration-2-1.pdf. Conducted: August 22 – September 15, 2019. Sample: 2,527 U.S. adults. Relevant question: “Turning to the issue of immigration, do you strongly favor, favor, oppose or strongly oppose the following? [Alowing immigrants brought illegally to the U.S. as children to gain legal status.]”

[xli] Morning Consult/Politico, “National Tracking Poll,” https://www.politico.com/f/?id=00000171-c28c-d9e7-a3f1-cadfcf590000. Crosstabs: https://www.politico.com/f/?id=00000171-c292-d6b3-a579-def782020000. Conducted: April 24-26, 2020. Sample: 1,991 registered voters. Relevant question: “How important of a priority should each of the following be for Congress?” [Passing a bill that grants young people who were brought to the United States illegally when they were children, often with their parents, protection from deportation]

[xlii] That decision was issued on June 18 and allowed DACA to survive. However, the decision permits the Trump administration to make another attempt to end the protections for Dreamers if it uses proper procedures, including providing a valid explanation for its actions.

[xliii] CBS News, “Americans weigh in on issues before the Supreme Court – CBS News poll,” June 8, 2020, https://drive.google.com/file/d/1BIG9z6d4OdhprnhaqQN0-xbrwE14NPl3/view. Conducted: May 29 – June 2, 2020. Sample: 1,309 U.S. adults. Relevant question: “In general, do you favor or oppose allowing young immigrants who were brought to the US illegally as children to remain in the country if they meet certain requirements such as going to school or joining the military, and not having a criminal record?”

[xliv] Politico, “Poll: Trump voters want to protect Dreamers,” June 17, 2020, https://www.politico.com/news/2020/06/17/trump-supporters-dreamers-poll-323432. Conducted: June 12 – 14, 2020. Sample: 1,987 registered voters nationally. Relevant question: As you may know, Dreamers are young people who were brought back to the United States illegally when they were children, often with their parents. Which of the following do you think is the best way to handle Dreamers: they should be allowed to stay and become citizens if they meet certain requirements; they should be allowed to stay and become legal residents, but not citizens, if they meet certain requirements; [or] they should be removed or deported from the United States?”

[xlv] Pew Research Center, “Americans broadly support legal status for immigrants brought to the U.S. illegally as children,” June 17, 2020, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/06/17/americans-broadly-support-legal-status-for-immigrants-brought-to-the-u-s-illegally-as-children/. Conducted: June 4 – 10, 2020. Sample: 9,654 U.S. adults. Relevant question (https://www.pewresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/W68-topline_DACA.pdf): “As you may know, many immigrants who came illegally to the U.S. when they were children now have temporary legal status that may be ending. How would you feel about Congress passing a law granting them permanent legal status?”

[xlvi] Morning Consult/Politico, “National Tracking Poll,” https://morningconsult.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/190867_crosstabs_POLITICO_RVs_v1_JB-1.pdf. Conducted: August 23-25, 2019. Sample: 1,987 registered voters. Relevant questions: 1) “As you may know, when some families trying to cross the U.S. – Mexico border illegally have been caught and detained, U.S. officials have separated parents from their children. Supporters of this policy hold the parents criminally liable for entering the country illegally. Critics of this practice worry about the welfare of the children. Do you support or oppose the separation of parents who illegally cross the U.S. – Mexico border from their children?” 2) “Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Family separation at the U.S. – Mexico border is a violation of human rights.” 3)

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Family separation at the U.S. – Mexico border is needed to deter others who are trying to cross the border.” 4) “Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Family separation at the U.S. – Mexico border is an unfortunate consequence of the legal process at the border.”

[xlvii] Lynn Vavreck, John Sides and Chris Tausanovitch, “What Is Voters’ Highest Priority? There’s a Way to Find Out,” New York Times, December 5, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/12/05/upshot/impeachment-biggest-issue-voters-poll.html.

[xlviii] Lynn Vavreck, John Sides and Chris Tausanovitch, “What Are Independent Voters’ Burning Issues?” New York Times, December 19, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/12/19/upshot/independent-voters-important-issues.html?searchResultPosition=6.

[xlix] Public Religion Research Institute, “A Nation of Immigrants? Diverging Perceptions of Immigrants Increasingly Marking Partisan Divides,” March 12, 2020, https://www.prri.org/research/a-nation-of-immigrants-diverging-perceptions-of-immigrants-increasingly-marking-partisan-divides/. Toplines: https://www.prri.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/PRRI_Mar_2020_Immigration-2-1.pdf. Conducted: August 22 – September 15, 2019. Sample: 2,527 U.S. adults. Relevant question: “Turning to the issue of immigration, do you strongly favor, favor, oppose or strongly oppose the following? [An immigration border policy that separates children from their parents and charges parents as criminals when they enter the country without permission]

[l] CNN Poll, July 2, 2019, http://cdn.cnn.com/cnn/2019/images/07/02/rel8b.-.trump,.immigration.pdf. Conducted: June 28-30, 2019. Sample: 1,613 U.S. adults. Relevant question: “Do you favor or oppose allowing refugees from Central American countries to seek asylum in the United States?”

[li] Morning Consult/Politico National Tracking Poll, https://www.politico.com/f/?id=0000016b-fcca-d1de-ab6b-fefb7bad0001. Conducted: July 12-14, 2019. Sample: 1,984 registered voters nationwide. Relevant question: “Would you say the United States allows too many, not enough, or about the right amount of refugees to settle in the country?”

[lii] Gallup, “Support for Allowing Border Refugees Into U.S. Edges Up,” August 13, 2019, https://news.gallup.com/poll/264785/support-allowing-border-refugees-edges.aspx. Conducted: July 15-31, 2019. Sample: 3,038 U.S. adults. Relevant questions: 1) “as you may know, thousands of refugees have left Honduras and other Central American countries to escape the situation there. Would you approve or disapprove of allowing these refugees to come into this country?” 2) “Do you, personally, consider the situation at the U.S. border with Mexico to be–a crisis, a major problem, a minor problem, or not a problem for the U.S.?”

[liii] Pew Research Center, “Public’s Priorities for U.S. Asylum Policy: More Judges for Cases, Safe Conditions for Migrants,” August 12, 2019, https://www.people-press.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2019/08/PP_2019.08.12_Immigration_FINAL-1.pdf. Conducted: July 22 – August 4, 2019. Sample: 4,175. Relevant questions: “Thinking about the situation at the U.S. border with Mexico, how important, if at all, are each of the following for the U.S.?” 1) [“To reduce the number of people coming to the U.S. to seek asylum.”] 2) [“To provide more assistance to countries in places like Central America, where many asylum seekers are coming from.”] 3) [“To make it harder for asylum seekers to be granted legal status in the U.S.”] 4) [“To make it easier for asylum seekers to be granted legal status in the U.S.”]

[liv] Pew Research Center, “Public’s Priorities for U.S. Asylum Policy: More Judges for Cases, Safe Conditions for Migrants,” August 12, 2019, https://www.people-press.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2019/08/PP_2019.08.12_Immigration_FINAL-1.pdf. Conducted: July 22 – August 4, 2019. Sample: 4,175. Relevant questions: “Thinking about the situation at the U.S. border with Mexico, how important, if at all, are each of the following for the U.S.?” 1) [“To provide safe and sanitary conditions for asylum seekers once they arrive in the U.S.”] 2) [“To increase the number of judges handling asylum cases.”]

[lv] Pew Research Center, “Americans’ immigration policy priorities: Divisions between – and within – the two parties,” November 12, 2019, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/11/12/americans-immigration-policy-priorities-divisions-between-and-within-the-two-parties/. Conducted: September 3-15, 2019. Sample: 9,895 U.S. adults. Relevant question: “Thinking about the issue of Immigration, how important of a goal should each of the following be for immigration policy in the U.S.: Taking in civilian refugees from countries where people are trying to escape violence and war.”

[lvi] Public Religion Research Institute, “A Nation of Immigrants? Diverging Perceptions of Immigrants Increasingly Marking Partisan Divides,” March 12, 2020, https://www.prri.org/research/a-nation-of-immigrants-diverging-perceptions-of-immigrants-increasingly-marking-partisan-divides/. Toplines: https://www.prri.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/PRRI_Mar_2020_Immigration-2-1.pdf. Conducted: August 22 – September 15, 2019. Sample: 2,527 U.S. adults. Relevant question: “Turning to the issue of immigration, do you strongly favor, favor, oppose or strongly oppose the following? [Passing a law to prevent refugees from entering the U.S.]

[lvii] NPR/Ipsos, “Most Americans support single, national strategy to combat COVID-19,” August 4, 2020, https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/ct/news/documents/2020-08/topline_npr_covid_and_immigration_080420.pdf. Conducted: July 30-31, 2020. Sample: 1,115 U.S. adults. Relevant questions: 1) “Should the federal government restrict immigration to the U.S. during the coronavirus pandemic by doing each of the following?” c.) “Banning the entry of asylum seekers and refugees into the U.S.” 2) “Do you agree or disagree with the following statements?” c.) America has a moral obligation to accept refugees facing persecution.” 3) “Do you support or oppose each of the following immigration-related proposals?” e.) “Denying asylum to most victims of domestic abuse or gang violence.”

[lviii] Fox News Poll, June 16, 2019, https://www.scribd.com/document/413536427/Fox-News-Poll-June-16. Conducted: June 9-12, 2019. Sample: 1,001 registered voters nationwide. Relevant questions: 1) “Do you think the Trump administration’s enforcement of immigration laws has gone too far, not gone far enough, or is about right?” 2) Please tell me if you favor or oppose … Increasing the number of border agents along the U.S.-Mexico border?”

[lix] CNN Poll, July 2, 2019, http://cdn.cnn.com/cnn/2019/images/07/02/rel8b.-.trump,.immigration.pdf. Conducted: June 28-30, 2019. Sample: 1,613 U.S. adults. Relevant questions: 1) “Do you approve or disapprove of the way Donald Trump is handling Immigration?” 2) “Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way migrants attempting to cross the U.S. border are being treated by the U.S. government?” 3) “Thinking about the current situation at the border between the United States and Mexico, do you consider the situation at the border to be a crisis, or not?” 4) “Do you consider it a crisis more because of the way migrants attempting to cross the border are being treated, or more because of the number of migrants who are attempting to cross the border?”

[lx] Fox News Poll, July 24, 2019, https://www.scribd.com/document/419649818/Fox-News-Poll-7-24. Conducted: July 21-23. Sample: 1,004 registered voters nationwide. Relevant questions: 1) Do you approve or disapprove of the way Donald Trump is handling [immigration].” 2) “How concerned are you about the treatment of migrants detained on the U.S.-Mexico border?” 3) “Do you approve or disapprove of the job the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency or ICE is doing?”

[lxi] Quinnipiac University, “Trump Is Racist, Half Of U.S. Voters Say, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds; But Voters Say Almost 2-1 Don’t Impeach President,” July 30, 2019, https://poll.qu.edu/national/release-detail?ReleaseID=3636. Conducted: July 25-28, 2019. Sample: 1,306 voters nationwide. Relevant question: “Do you think that the federal government is doing enough to ensure humane conditions in immigration detention centers, or don’t you think so?”

[lxii] Monthly Harvard-Harris Poll: July 2019, https://harvardharrispoll.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/HHP_July2019_Crosstabs_RegisteredVoters-1.pdf. Conducted: July 31-August 1, 2019. Sample: 2,214 registered voters. Relevant questions: 1) “What would you say are the most important issues facing the country today? Please select three.” 2) “Do you approve or disapprove of the job President Trump is doing on [immigration]?”

[lxiii] Pew Research Center, “Public’s Priorities for U.S. Asylum Policy: More Judges for Cases, Safe Conditions for Migrants,” August 12, 2019, https://www.people-press.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2019/08/PP_2019.08.12_Immigration_FINAL-1.pdf. Conducted: July 22 – August 4, 2019. Sample: 4,175. Relevant question: “How would you rate the job the U.S. government is doing dealing with the increased number of people seeking asylum at the U.S. border with Mexico?”

[lxiv] AP/NORC, “The September 2019 AP-NORC Center Poll,” http://www.apnorc.org/projects/Documents/topline_trump_release_9_27.pdf. Conducted: September 20-23, 2019. Sample: 1,286 U.S. adults. Relevant question: “Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way Donald Trump is handling [immigration]?”

[lxv] CBS News, “Most Feel Good About the Economy, But Not the State of the Country,” January 31, 2020, https://www.scribd.com/document/444974747/Toplines-Trump-Sotu. Conducted: January 26-29, 2020. Sample: 1202 U.S. adults. Relevant questions: 1) “Which do you think should be the top priority for the country right now?” 2) “Do you approve or disapprove of the way Donald Trump is handling the issue of immigration?”

[lxvi] Emerson Polling, “Arizona Poll: Toss Ups in Presidential and Senate Races; Biden Holds Small Lead In Democratic Primary with Warren and Sanders Tied for Second,” October 29, 2019, http://emersonpolling.com/2019/10/29/arizona-poll-toss-ups-in-presidential-and-senate-races-biden-holds-small-lead-in-democratic-primary-with-warren-and-sanders-tied-for-second/. Conducted: October 25-28, 2019. Sample: 901 Arizona registered voters. Relevant question: 1) “Which one of the following is the most important issue in deciding for whom you will vote for President: [Immigration].”

[lxvii] The New York Times/Sienna College Research Institute, https://scri.siena.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/AZ1019-CrosstabsALL.pdf. Conducted: October 13-23, 2019. Sample: 652 Arizona registered voters. Relevant question: “For each of these positions, tell me whether you strongly support the position, somewhat support it, somewhat oppose it or strongly oppose the position: [Reducing the level of legal immigration].”

[lxviii] Latino Decisions, Univision/Noticias, Arizona State University, Arizona Registered Voters March 2020, https://st1.uvnimg.com/07/2e/d0d9a91c4000996d8bcc95b85319/univisionpolling-march-arizona.pdf. Conducted: March 6-11, 2020. Sample: 1,036 Arizona registered voters. Relevant questions: 1) “On the whole, what are the most important issues facing your community that you think Congress and the President should address? [Border security to control immigration]” 2) “Do you support or oppose creating a permanent pathway to citizenship for DREAMERS — young undocumented immigrants who came to the country as children, but were raised in this country?”

[lxix] AZ Central, “Arizona colleges move to expand tuition rate for immigrants, eliminate DACA requirement,” August 20, 2019, https://www.azcentral.com/story/news/politics/immigration/2019/08/20/arizona-colleges-move-expand-tuition-rate-immigrants-daca/2068212001/.

[lxx] Florida Atlantic University, “FAU Poll Finds Warren Cutting Into Biden’s Lead in Florida, Where Trump Narrowly Leads in Matchups with Democrats,” https://business.fau.edu/departments/economics/business-economics-polling/bepi-polls/bepi-polls-2019/warren-cutting-into-bidens-lead-in-florida.php. Conducted: September 12-15, 2019, Sample: 934 registered voters. Relevant question: “When it comes to deciding for whom you will vote for president, which one of the following is the single most important issue in deciding for whom you will vote?” [immigration]

[lxxi] University of North Florida, “New UNF Poll Reveals Florida Torn Over Trump Impeachment Inquiry,” October 22, 2019, https://www.unf.edu/publicrelations/media_relations/press/2019/New_UNF_Poll_Reveals_Florida_Torn_Over_Trump_Impeachment_Inquiry.aspx. Conducted: October 14-20, 2019. Sample: 669 registered voters.

[lxxii] Univision/Noticias, Latino Decisions, Florida Registered Voters March 2020, https://st1.uvnimg.com/11/92/701333304b6daa2b6b01e98571db/univisionpolling-march-florida-statewide-final.pdf. Conducted: March 6-12, 2020. Sample: 1,071 registered voters. Relevant questions: 1) “On the whole, what are the most important issues facing your community that you think Congress and the President should address?” [“border security to control immigration”] 2) “Do you support or oppose creating a permanent pathway to citizenship for DREAMERS — young undocumented immigrants who came to the country as children, but were raised in this country?”

[lxxiii] Climate Nexis, Georgia Poll Toplines, https://climatenexus.org/wp-content/uploads/pdf/Georgia-Poll-Toplines.pdf. Conducted: November 4-10, 2019. Sample: 789 registered voters in Georgia. Relevant questions: 1) “In making your decision about who to vote for, which two issues are the most important to your vote? Please select two issues.” [immigration] 2) “Below are some specific issues facing Georgia. For each, please indicate whether you think it’s a veryserious, somewhat serious, not too serious, or not a serious problem at all for your local area.” [illegal immigration]

[lxxiv] Emerson Polling, “Michigan 2020: Democrats Aim to Take Back the State; Flint Water Crisis Still at Issue,” November 3, 2019, http://emersonpolling.com/2019/11/03/michigan-2020-democrats-aim-to-take-back-the-state-flint-water-crisis-still-at-issue/. Conducted: October 31 – November 3, 2019. Sample: 1,051 registered voters. Relevant question: “Which one of the following is the most important issue in deciding for whom you will vote for President?”

[lxxv] Quinnipiac University, “Swing State Poll: Trump Up In Wisconsin While Dems Have The Edge In Pennsylvania, Quinnipiac University Poll Finds; In Michigan It’s Close,” February 20, 2020, https://poll.qu.edu/2020-presidential-swing-state-polls/release-detail?ReleaseID=3656. Crosstabs: https://poll.qu.edu/images/polling/bg/mi02202020_crosstabs_bgwr35.pdf. Conducted: February 12-18, 2020. Sample: 845 registered voters. Relevant question: “Which of these is the most important issue to you in deciding who to vote for in the election for president: the economy, immigration, health care, climate change, gun policy, or the Supreme Court?”

[lxxvi] Ipsos, “Biden leads in close race in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Pennsylvania,” April 23, 2020, https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/ct/news/documents/2020-04/topline_swing_state_kp_04_23_2020__0.pdf. Conducted: April 15-20, 2020. Sample: 642 Michigan adults. Relevant questions: 1) “In your opinion, what is the most important problem facing your community today?” [immigration] 2) “If the 2020 presidential election were being held today, which of the following candidate traits would be the MOST important factor for you in deciding who to vote for?” [Strong on immigration]

[lxxvii] Ipsos, “Biden leads in close race in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Pennsylvania,” April 23, 2020, https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/ct/news/documents/2020-04/topline_swing_state_kp_04_23_2020__0.pdf. Conducted: April 15-20, 2020. Sample: 642 Michigan adults. Relevant questions: 1) “Generally speaking, would you say the following things are heading in the right direction, or are they off on the wrong track?” [Immigration policy] 2) “Do you approve or disapprove of the way Donald Trump is handling the following issues?” [Immigration]

[lxxviii] Climate Nexis, Ohio Poll Toplines, https://climatenexus.org/wp-content/uploads/pdf/Ohio-Poll-Toplines-and-Crosstabs.pdf. Conducted: October 1-7, 2019. Sample: 1,112 Ohio registered voters. Relevant questions: 1) “In making your decision about who to vote for, which two issues are the most important to your vote? Please select two issues.” [immigration] 2) “Below are some specific issues facing Ohio. For each, please indicate whether you think it’s a very serious, somewhat serious, not too serious, or not a serious problem at all for your local area.” [illegal immigration]

[lxxix] The Baldwin Wallace University Great Lakes Poll, March 25, 2020, https://www.bw.edu/Assets/community-research-institute/03-2020_great_lakes_poll_ii%20final.pdf. Conducted: March 17-25, 2020. Sample: 1,025 Ohio registered voters. Relevant question: “Now thinking about your vote for president, what would you say is the top set of issues you care about?” [“Security issues (e.g., terrorism, foreign policy, and border security)”]

[lxxx] The Baldwin Wallace University Ohio Poll, April 26, 2020, https://www.bw.edu/Assets/community-research-institute/04-2020_ohio_poll%20release.pdf. Conducted: April 20-25, 2020. Sample: 797 Ohio registered voters. Relevant question: “Now thinking about your vote for president, what would you say is the top set of issues you care about?” [“Security issues (e.g., terrorism, foreign policy, and border security)”]

[lxxxi] Muhlenberg College Institute of Public Opinion, “Muhlenberg College/Morning Call Pennsylvania Presidential Election Survey,” November 2019, https://www.muhlenberg.edu/media/contentassets/pdf/academics/polisci/PA_Pres_Nov_2019__Report_%20(1).pdf. Conducted: November 4-9, 2019. Sample: 410 Pennsylvania registered voters. Relevant question: “I’m going to read a list of functions that a President often performs in office.  For each function that I mention please tell me if you think that Donald Trumphas been be excellent, good, fair or poor at performing that function.” [“Dealing with illegal immigration”]

[lxxxii] Quinnipiac University, “Swing State Poll: Trump Up In Wisconsin While Dems Have The Edge In Pennsylvania, Quinnipiac University Poll Finds; In Michigan It’s Close,” February 20, 2020, https://poll.qu.edu/2020-presidential-swing-state-polls/release-detail?ReleaseID=3656. Crosstabs: https://poll.qu.edu/images/polling/bg/pa02202020_crosstabs_bgwr35.pdf. Conducted: February 12-18, 2020. Sample: 849 Pennsylvania registered voters. Relevant question: “Which of these is the most important issue to you in deciding who to vote for in the election for president: the economy, immigration, health care, climate change, gun policy, or the Supreme Court?” [Immigration]

[lxxxiii] Muhlenberg College Institute of Public Opinion, “Muhlenberg College/Morning Call Pennsylvania Presidential Election Survey,” February 2020, https://assets.documentcloud.org/documents/6788733/FULL-RESULTS-Morning-Call-Muhlenberg-College.pdf. Conducted: February 12-20, 2020. Sample: 424 registered Pennsylvania voters. Relevant questions: 1) “What is the most important issue for you in terms of deciding your vote in the 2020 presidential election?” 2) “I would like to ask you if you strongly approve, somewhat approve, somewhat disapproveor strongly disapprove of President Trump’s handling of the areas I mention.” [Immigration]

[lxxxiv] Ipsos, “Biden leads in close race in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Pennsylvania,” April 23, 2020, https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/ct/news/documents/2020-04/topline_swing_state_kp_04_23_2020__0.pdf. Conducted: April 15-20, 2020. Sample: 654 Pennsylvania adults. Relevant questions: 1) “In your opinion, what is the most important problem facing your community today?” [immigration] 2) “If the 2020 presidential election were being held today, which of the following candidate traits would be the MOST important factor for you in deciding who to vote for?” [Strong on immigration] 3) “Generally speaking, would you say the following things are heading in the right direction, or are they off on the wrong track?” [Immigration policy]

[lxxxv] Texas Lyceum Poll, “2020 Texas Statewide Survey,” https://www.texaslyceum.org/assets/docs/Poll/2020/2020%20Texas%20Lyceum%20Poll%20Results.pdf. Conducted: January 10—19, 2020. Sample: 1,200 Texas adults. Relevant questions: 1) “What do you think is the most important issue facing the country today?​” [immigration] [border security] 2) “What do you think is the most important issue facing the state of Texas today? [immigration] [border security]

[lxxxvi] The Dallas Morning News/UT/Tyler, https://projects.fivethirtyeight.com/polls/20200202_TX_3.pdf. Conducted: January 21-30. Sample, 861 likely voters. Relevant question, “Do you support or oppose Governor Greg Abbott’s decision to block refugees from resettling in Texas?”

[lxxxvii] Univision/Noticias, University of Houston, Latino Decisions, “Texas Registered Voters March 2020 – Super Tuesday,” https://latinodecisions.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/Univision-CMAS-UH-Feb20-TX-Xtab.pdf. Conducted: February 21-26. Sample: 1,004 Texas registered voters. Relevant questions: 1) “On the whole, what are the most important issues facing your community that you think Congress and the President should address?” [“border security to control immigration”] 2) “Do you support or oppose creating a permanent pathway to citizenship for DREAMERS — young undocumented immigrants who came to the country as children, but were raised in this country?”

[lxxxviii] University of Texas/Texas Tribune, “Everything we learned from the latest University of Texas/Texas Tribune poll,” April 25, 2020, https://www.texastribune.org/2020/04/25/trump-biden-texas-coronavirus-poll/. Crosstabs: https://static.texastribune.org/media/files/106994040476875e025e88ab87077a52/ut-tt-2020-04-xtabs.pdf?_ga=2.91227162.1648659311.1589205954-15500200.1587495681. Conducted: April 10-17, 2020. Sample: 1,497 Texas registered voters. Relevant questions: 1) “What would you say is the most important problem facing this country today?” [immigration] 2) “What would you say is the most important problem facing the State of Texas today” [immigration] [border security] 3) “Thinking about legal immigration, do you think the United States allows too many people to immigrate here from other countries, too few, or about the right amount?” 4) “Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Undocumented immigrants currently living in the United States should be deported immediately.”

[lxxxix] “Marquette University Law School Poll: A Comprehensive Look at the Wisconsin Vote,” https://law.marquette.edu/poll/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/MLSP53Crosstabs.pdf. Conducted: August 25-29, 2019. Sample: 800 registered voters in Wisconsin. Comparison with past surveys: https://law.marquette.edu/poll/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/MLSP53PresentationSlides.pdf. Relevant question: “On balance, do you think having an increasing number of people of many different races, ethnic groups and nationalities in the United States makes this country a better place to live, a worse place to live, or doesn’t make much difference either way?”

[xc] Fox News Poll: Wisconsin, https://www.scribd.com/document/428970093/Fox-News-Poll-October-2019-Wisconsin#download&from_embed. Conducted: September 29 – October 2, 2019. Sample: 1,512 Wisconsin voters. Relevant question: “Which one of the following issues will be the MOST important to your vote for president in 2020?” [“immigration and border security”]

[xci] The Marquette Law School Poll, https://law.marquette.edu/poll/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/MLSP57Crosstabs.pdf. Conducted: January 8-12, 2020. Sample: 800 Wisconsin registered voters. Relevant question: “Thinking about legal immigration, do you think the number of legal immigrants to the US should be increased, remain the same, or be reduced?”

[xcii] Quinnipiac University, “Swing State Poll: Trump Up In Wisconsin While Dems Have The Edge In Pennsylvania, Quinnipiac University Poll Finds; In Michigan It’s Close,” February 20, 2020, https://poll.qu.edu/2020-presidential-swing-state-polls/release-detail?ReleaseID=3656. Crosstabs: https://poll.qu.edu/images/polling/bg/wi02202020_crosstabs_bgwr35.pdf.  Conducted: February 12-18, 2020. Sample: 823 Wisconsin registered voters. Relevant question: “Which of these is the most important issue to you in deciding who to vote for in the election for president: the economy, immigration, health care, climate change, gun policy, or the Supreme Court?”

[xciii] The Marquette Law School Poll, https://law.marquette.edu/poll/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/MLSP58Crosstabs.pdf. Conducted: February 19-23, 2020. Sample: 1,000 Wisconsin registered voters. Relevant question: “Which comes closest to your view about undocumented immigrants who are currently working in the U.S.? They should be allowed to stay in their jobs and to eventually apply for U.S. citizenship. OR, They should be allowed to stay in their jobs only as temporary guest workers, but not to apply for U.S. citizenship. OR, They should be required to leave their jobs and leave the U.S.”

[xciv] Iplsos, “Ipsos Swing State Poll: Biden leads in close race in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Pennsylvania,” April 23, 2020, https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/ct/news/documents/2020-04/topline_swing_state_kp_04_23_2020__0.pdf. Conducted: April 15-20, 2020. Sample: 711 Wisconsin adults. Relevant Questions: 1) “In your opinion, what is the most important problem facing your community today?” [immigration] 2) “If the 2020 presidential election were being held today, which of the following candidate traits would be the MOST important factor for you in deciding who to vote for?” [“strong on immigration”] 3) “Do you approve or disapprove of the way Donald Trump is handling the following issues?” [immigration]

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