Job Shortages

The tables below show the top three occupations that are projected from 2018-2028 of Texas employers based on the level of education they require.  There is a state minimum wage of $7.25 in Texas. The one highlighted occupation under each of the three education levels has been selected to expand on in terms of potential career advancement.

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Potential Career Advancement

1) Retail Salesperson to Supervisor of Retail Sales Workers

Retail Salesperson Job Description: 

  • Sell merchandise, such as furniture, motor vehicles, appliances, or apparel to consumers

Entry Level Requirements:  

  • Short-term on-the-job training
  • English language proficiency 

Supervisor of Retail Sales Workers Job Description: 

  • Supervise and coordinate activities of retail sales workers in a department 

Career Advancement Requirements:  

  • High school diploma or GED typically required

2) Nursing Assistant to Licensed Practical Nurse

Nursing Assistant Job Description: 

  • Provide or assist with basic care or support under the direction of onsite licensed nursing staff

Entry Level Requirements:  

  • Complete a state-approved nurse training program, free CNA course found online here
  • Pass the state exam ($104)

Licensed Practical Nurse Job Description: 

  • Provide more extensive patient care with fewer administrative tasks relative to medical assistant  

Career Advancement Requirements:  

  • Complete a state-approved Practical Nursing program
  • Pass the National Council Licensure Exam-Practical Nurse (NCLEX-PN) exam ($200)
  • Apply for license ($186, renewal every 2 years)

3) Accountant & Auditor to Financial Manager

Accountant & Auditor Job Description

  •  Analyze financial information and prepare financial reports on activities in an organization

Entry Level Requirements:  

  • Bachelor’s degree with accounting concentration (equivalent to 150 semester hours) and at least 1 year experience in accounting 
  • Pass the CPA exam (Approx. $900)
  • Pass a Board-approved ethics course
  • Apply for certification
  • State residency and citizenship not required, but social security is required

Financial Manager Job Description: 

  • Plan, direct, or coordinate accounting, investing, banking, insurance, securities, and other financial activities of a branch, office, or department of an establishment

Career Advancement Requirements:  

  • Bachelor’s degree in finance related field, Master’s degree encouraged
  • 5+ years of experience in business or finance, more information found here

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Immigration in Texas

The following are facts about the immigrant community in Texas

  • Immigrants comprise 17% of the state population and 22% of the Texas labor force 
  • Top industries of immigrant employment: 
    • Construction, 517,957 workers 
    • Manufacturing, 361,818 workers 
    • Health Care and Social Assistance, 353,961 workers 
    • Accommodation and Food Services, 336,864 workers 
    • Retail Trade, 332,182 workers 
  • 429,414 immigrant business owners account for 29% of all self-employed Texas residents
  • 38% of immigrants in Texas are naturalized and another 33% are undocumented
  • Top foreign-born countries of origin:
    • Mexico, 51% 
    • India, 6% 
    • El Salvador, 5% 
    • Vietnam, 4% 
    • Honduras, 3% 
  • 16% of native-born Texans are children of an immigrant
  • Educational attainment of foreign born adults in Texas
    • High School diploma or less –  57
    • More than HS diploma, less than Bachelor’s degree – 16
    • Bachelor’s degree or higher – 26









* Share of immigrant professionals, who are unemployed, employed at poverty-level wages in High School diploma or less jobs, or significantly underemployed in more than HS diploma, less than Bachelor’s degree jobs


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Projections Managing Partnership (PMP), Projections Central – State Occupational Projections, “Long Term Occupational Projection (2018-2028)”;  http://www.projectionscentral.com/Projections/LongTerm 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2019 State Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates; https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oessrcst.htm  

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections, “Education and training assignments by detailed occupation,” 2019; https://www.bls.gov/emp/tables/education-and-training-by-occupation.htm  

National Council of State Legislatures, “State Minimum Wages”, December 2020; http://www.ncsl.org/research/labor-and-employment/state-minimum-wage-chart.aspx#Table 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Economic News Release, “Employees on Nonfarm Payrolls by State, Seasonally adjusted”, November 2020; https://www.bls.gov/news.release/laus.t03.htm  

Potential Career Advancement 

National Conference of State Legislatures, “The National Occupational Licensing Database”, March 2020: https://www.ncsl.org/research/labor-and-employment/occupational-licensing-statute-database.aspx  


American Immigration Council, State by State Fact Sheet, August 2020; https://www.americanimmigrationcouncil.org/topics/state-by-state

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